(Forgive me for the lack of linguistic terms to explain this)
The placement of "ikke" at the end negates a statement ("Han elsker meg" = He loves me), where the order of the sentence is Subject - Verbal - Object, and where the object is a pronoun. "Han elsker ikke meg" would also be a valid sentence, but with a slightly different meaning, something like "He loves someone, but not me", where "ikke" is used together with "meg" to create an Object which is "anyone but me".
If the object wasn't a pronoun, but for example a name, you would place "ikke" before the object. For example "Han elsker ikke Charlotte" (He doesn't love Charlotte), or "Han elsker ikke geitost" (He doesn't love goat cheese.
Some more examples:
Josef liker den ikke = Josef doesn't like it
Josef liker ikke den = Josef doesn't like that one (Implying that he likes the others)
Josef liker ikke pennen = Josef doesn't like the pen
Josef liker ikke Johanne = Josef doesn't like Johanne
Josef liker henne ikke = Josef doesn't like her
Hope this wasn't too confusing.
Yeah, probably takes some time to get used to! Here's another source with a few more rules to make it even more confusing :) http://norwegianlearning.com/learning/placement-ikke-norwegian.html
Not exactly. It's a bit hard to explain the difference in writing, but meg has more of an "ei-sound" in Norwegian terms, whereas "my" would be an "ai-sound". For example, meg has the same vowel/diftong sound as as jeg, klein, greit. "My" in English sounds more like Maiken and "ai ai ai". Those are the only two examples I could find with an "ai"-sound ;)
So I spoke with my Norwegian friend from Oslo, and they said either "Han elsker meg ikke" and "Han elsker ikke meg" mean the same thing, despite some comments saying the order changes the meaning. Can someone explain? They actually said that "Han elsker ikke meg" is the only thing they say...
Different areas of Norway will have different ways of expression. I’m from the South of Norway (not Oslo) and I would use both, but with the difference noted above.
Han elsker meg ikke means that he doesn’t love me. The focus is his lack of love for me - the feeling, as in “he loves me, he loves me not”. Maybe he just likes me, or maybe his love for me is lost forever and now he loathes me. What’s in his heart for me? Not love.
Han elsker ikke meg deals with what/who he’s not loving, which happens to be me. You’re expecting the continuation to be what/who he DOES love. As in, he doesn’t love me, but Synnøve.
I would never use the second when I mean the first. They’re very distinctively different. I wish I could explain the mechanics better.
I think if you translate it word by word you actually get a good idea of it. Maybe that’s the old English shining through with more similarity to Norwegian.
Han elsker meg ikke - He loves me not (he doesn’t love me)
Han elsker ikke meg - He loves not me (but my best friend. What a bummer. )
It could, but shouldn't necessarily. As mentioned in a rather lengthy comment from me above, plus a couple from elinska, it could alter the meaning a bit.
As for the correct placement of "ikke", you could see http://norwegianlearning.com/learning/placement-ikke-norwegian.html ; note the exception when object is a pronoun, which is the case here.