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  5. "She wiped his dry lips with …

"She wiped his dry lips with water."

Translation:Ŝi viŝis liajn sekajn lipojn per akvo.

August 17, 2015



I understand that "per" is a nicer translation but is "kun" utterly wrong to introduce the means to achieve something?


"Kun" means "together with."

If you and someone go somewhere together you can say that you went "kun" the other person.


Why can't I use "akve" instead of "per akvo"?


It's true that Esperanto will often use an adverb where English will use a prepositional phrase, but it doesn't quite work in this case. My gut feeling (as a "veteran Esperanto speaker") is that the reason is that "akve" is too vague. Does it mean "with water", does it mean "in water", does it mean "in a watery way"? It's best to specify (using per) that it's by means of water.


I don't understand, does "wipe" mean "moisten" in this context?


I'm trying to come up with a rule for when we use "kun" vs. "per". Is it correct to say that kun is used when you are talking about multiple individuals doing something together, and per is used to describe the usage of some related thing? eg "wiping with water" or "wiping with a towel"


per = by means of
Mi manĝas per forko = I eat with a fork

kun = added to/(together) with
Kafo kun sukero = coffee with sugar
Mi parolas kun vi = I talk with you.

kune = together
Ni dancas kune = We dance together


"per" is used to express a method or the means to do something, I believe.


The "rule" that I use to teach this distinction is this:

  • kun = together with
  • per = by means of
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