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  5. "He never reads."

"He never reads."

Translation:Ní léann sé riamh.

August 21, 2015



Does riamh mean never or ever? The way this sentence goes it looks like "he doesn't ever read"


It means both, depending on context.


Does it though? Does riamh mean "never" by itself? Or only in conjuction with ? Isn't that more like "not ever" then?


riamh can mean 'never' by itself depending on the context. It really can mean both, depending on how it's used.


In the past in particular it can mean "never", even without a negative verbal particle.


I'm looking for guidance on:
NEVER ............. NOT ... EVER ...
Níl .... riamh ...
Ní .... riamh ...
Can the particle sometimes be "ní" and sometimes be "níl"
and if so, what are the guidelines for each?


I think you use "ní" before words beginning with consonants and vice versa for "níl", but please correct me if I'm wrong.


is used to negative all verbs in the present and future tense.

In the case of the verb , the present tense dependent form, used after verbal particles, is fuil, so you get an bhfuil, go bhfuil etc, but what should be ní fhuil has become níl, because fh is silent.

So níl is only used if the positive version of the question would use . It has noting to do with vowels or consonants.

ní ithim cabáiste - "I don't eat cabbage"
ní léann sé an nuachtán - "he doesn't read the newspaper"
ní bhuailfidh tú leis - "you will not meet him"

níl sé fuar - "he is not cold"
tá sé fuair - "he is cold"
níl ocras orm - "I'm not hungry"
tá ocras orm - "I am hungry"

It is possible to use riamh with and with níl, because níl is just a special case of .

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