https://www.duolingo.com/amuzulo

Words with ĥ

amuzulo
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Recently there has been a lot of discussion about what Esperanto words exist with the letter ĥ. Here is a list taken from the ESPDIC project. Many of these words are more commonly written with k today, such as the following:

Some examples of ĥ words changing to k

ĥaoso -> kaoso
ĥemio -> kemio
ĥoro -> koruso

Complete list of ĥ words from ESPDIC

abĥaza : Abkhazian
Abĥazio : Abkhazia
abĥazo : Abkhazian
Abĥazujo : Abkhazia
Abimeleĥ : Abimelech
aermeĥanikisto : flight engineer, flight mechanic
Ahimeleĥo : Ahimelech
aĥ : (interjection)
Aĥabo : Ahab
aĥaja : Achaean
aĥajano : Achaean, Achaian
Aĥajo : Achaea, Achaia
Aĥaŝveroŝ : Ahasuerus
Aĥaŝveroŝo : Ahasuerus, the Wandering Jew
aĥemenida : Achaemenian
Aĥemeno : Achaemenes
Aĥeno : Aix-la-Chapelle
Aĥerono : Acheron
aĥi : to gasp, whimper
Aĥila : Achilles
aĥila kalkano : Achilles’ heel
aĥila tendeno : Achilles’ tendon
aĥilkalkano : Achilles’ heel
Aĥilo : Achilles
aĥiltendeno : Achilles’ tendon
Aĥmedo : Ahmed
Aĥnaŝino : Achnasheen
akrostiĥo : acrostic
Albreĥto : Albert
alĥemia : alchemic, alchemical
alĥemiisto : alchemist
alĥemio : alchemy
almanaĥo : almanac
almozmonaĥo : mendicant friar
amfibraĥa : amphibrachic
amfibraĥo : amphibrach
anarĥia : anarchic, anarchical, anarchist, chaotic
anarĥie : anarchically
anarĥiismo : anarchism
anarĥiista : anarchistic
anarĥiisto : anarchist
anarĥio : anarchy
anarĥiulo : anarchist
andromaĥo : Andromache
anĥo : ankh
Antioĥio : Antioch
Antioĥujo : Antioch
arĥaika : archaic
arĥaike : archaically
arĥaismo : archaism
arĥaja : antiquated, archaic, obsolete
arĥaje : archaically
arĥeologia : archaeological, archeological
arĥeologiisto : archaeologist
arĥeologio : archaeology
arĥeologo : archaeologist, archeologist
arĥeopterigo : archeopteryx
Arĥeozoiko : Archaeozoic, Archaeozoic era
arĥetipo : archetype
arĥianĝelo : archangel
arĥidiakona : archdiaconal
arĥidiakono : archdeacon
arĥiduko : archduke
arĥiepiskopa : archiepiscopal
arĥiepiskopejo : archbishopric, archepiscopality
arĥiepiskopo : archbishop
arĥifripono : archfiend
arĥimandrito : archimandrite
arĥimeda : Archimedean
arĥimeda spiralo : Archimedes spiral
arĥimeda ŝraŭbo : Archimedean screw
Arĥimedo : Archimedes
arĥipelago : archipelago
arĥitektaĵo : building
arĥitekto : architect
arĥitektura : architectural
arĥitekture : architecturally
arĥitekturisto : architect
arĥitekturo : architecture
arĥitravo : architrave
arĥivejo : archive
arĥivisto : archivist, keeper of the records
arĥivo : archive, archives, files, records
arĥivolto : archivolt
arĥonto : archon
Armaĥo : Armagh
astroĥemio : astrochemistry
Atreĥto : Arras
aŭtoĥtona : autochthonous, indigenous
aŭtoĥtono : native
azuleĥo : glazed tile
baĥanalo : bacchanalia
baĥanto : bacchant
Baĥo : Bacchus
baĥrajna : Bahraini
baĥrajnanino : Bahraini woman
baĥrajnano : Bahraini
Baĥrajno : Bahrain
bakĥa : bacchanal
bakĥanalio : bacchanal
Bakĥanalio : Bacchanalia
bakĥanalo : bacchanal, Bacchanalia
bakĥanino : bacchanal
Bakĥanino : Bacchanalian person
bakĥano : bacchanal, bacchant
Bakĥano : Bacchanalian person
Bakĥantino : Bacchanalian woman
bakĥantino : bacchantine
Bakĥanto : Bacchanalian person
bakĥanto : bacchant
Bakĥo : Bacchus
Bakĥofesto : Bacchanal party, celebration
Balaĥuliŝo : Ballachulish
Baloĥo : Balloch
banaĥa : Banach
banaĥa algebro : Banach algebra
banaĥa spaco : Banach space
Banaĥo : Banach
Berĥeno : Mons
Betleĥemo : Bethlehem
biogeoĥemia : biogeochemical
biogeoĥemio : biogeochemistry
bioĥemia : biochemical
bioĥemiisto : biochemist
bioĥemio : biochemistry
biomeĥanika : biomechanical
biomeĥaniko : biomechanics
braĥicefalo : brachycephalic
braĥiskomo : brachyscome
braĥiuro : crab
Buĥoro : Bukhara, Buxoro
burĥo : burka
cifereca arĥivo : digital archive
Ĉeĥa : Czech
Ĉeĥino : Czech woman
Ĉeĥio : Czech Republic
Ĉeĥioslovakio : Czechoslovakia
Ĉeĥo : Czech
Ĉeĥoslovaka : Czechoslovak, Czechoslovakian
Ĉeĥoslovakino : Czech woman
Ĉeĥoslovakio : Czechoslovakia
ĉeĥoslovakio : Czechoslovakia
Ĉeĥoslovako : Czechoslovak, Czechoslovakian
Ĉeĥoslovakujo : Czechoslovakia
Ĉeĥujo : Czech Republic
Ĉingisĥano : Genghis Khan
diĥotomia : dichotomy
diĥotomio : dichotomy
Dinbiĥo : Denbigh
doliĥocefalo : dolichocephal
donĥuano : Don Juan, woman-chaser
donkiĥotismo : Don Quixote-ism
donkiĥoto : Don Quixote
Dornoĥo : Dornoch
draĥmo : drachma
Drumnadroĥito : Drumnadrochit
eĥi : to echo
eĥidno : spiny ant-eater
eĥilo : echo machine
eĥino : sea urchin
eĥo : echo
eĥolokalizilo : echolocation, sonar
eĥosondi : to ping
eĥosondilo : sonar
eĥoŝanĝo ĉiuĵaŭde : the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog (phrase containing all the letters in a language)
elektroĥemia : electrochemical
elektroĥemie : electrochemically
elektroĥemio : electrochemistry
enarĥivigi : to archive
eparĥiestro : eparch
eparĥio : eparchy
epitroĥoido : epitrochoid
epoĥo : epoch, era, period
Esĥilo : Aeschylus
Eŭĥaristio : Eucharist
fakoĥero : warthog
Garloĥo : Gairloch
Glenjuĥo : Linlithgow
hidroĥero : capybara
hierarĥia : hierarchical
hierarĥie : hierarchically
hierarĥio : hierarchy
hipoĥondrio : hypochondria
hipoĥondriulo : hypochondriac
hipotroĥoido : hypotrochoid
Ĥabakuk : Habakkuk
Ĥabakuko : Habakkuk
Ĥagaj : Haggai
Ĥagajo : Haggai (tenth of the minor prophets)
Ĥajbaro : Khyber
ĥakasa : Khakas
ĥalato : bathrobe, robe, gown
ĥalazio : chalazion
ĥaldea : Chaldean
ĥaldeano : Chaldean
Ĥaldeio : Chaldea
Ĥaldeo : Chaldea
ĥaldeo : Chaldean
Ĥaldeujo : Chaldea
ĥaldeujo : Chaldea
ĥalifo : caliph
ĥalifujo : caliphate
ĥalkogeno : chalcogen
ĥalkolitiko : Chalcolithic
ĥameleona : chameleon-esque, chameleon-like
ĥameleonedoj : chamaeleonidae
Ĥameleono : Chamaeleon (constellation); chameleon
ĥameleono : chameleon
ĥamemoro : cloudberry
ĥamemoroj : cloudberries
ĥamida : Hamitic
Ĥamidaj lingvoj : Hamitic languages
Ĥamido : Hamite
ĥamido : Hamite
Ĥamo : Ham
ĥamsino : khamsin
ĥaneco : khanship
ĥanejo : khan-land
ĥano : khan
ĥanoh : Enoch
Ĥanoĥo : Enoch
ĥanto : Khanty, Ostiak
ĥanujo : khanate
Ĥanuko : Chanukah, Hanukkah
ĥaosa : chaotic
ĥaose : chaotically
ĥaosigi : to cause chaos
ĥaoso : chaos, tangle
ĥaradriedoj : pluviers
ĥaradrio : plover
ĥaradrioformaj : Charadriiformes (birds)
Ĥarkovo : Harkow
Ĥarono : Charon
Ĥartumo : Khartoum
ĥasidismo : Chassidim, Hasidim
ĥasido : Chasid, Hasid
ĥasidoj : Hassidim, Hasidim
ĥato : hut
ĥazaro : Chazar, Khazar
Ĥazarujo : Chazaria, Khazar Empire, Khazaria
ĥelonio : green sea turtle
ĥemia : chemical
ĥemiaĵo : chemical
ĥemiaĵoj : chemicals
ĥemie : chemically
ĥemiinstruisto : chemistry teacher
ĥemiisto : chemist
ĥemio : chemistry
ĥemiterapio : chemotherapy
Ĥeopso : Cheops, Khufu
Ĥeroneo : Chaeronea
ĥilo : chyle
ĥimera : chimerical, shadowy
ĥimero : chimera
ĥimerulo : freakish man
ĥimo : chyme, chymus
ĥina : Chinese
ĥina inko : Indian ink
ĥina lingvo : Chinese, Chinese language
ĥina novjaro : Chinese New Year
ĥinino : Chinese, Chinese lady, Chinese woman; quinine
Ĥinio : China
Ĥinlando : China
Ĥino : Chinese (man)
Ĥinujo : China
ĥio : chi; Chios
ĥiragro : arthritis, arthritism
ĥiromanciisto : palmist
ĥiromancio : palmistry
ĥironekto : water opossum, yapok
Ĥirono : Chiron
ĥiroptero : bat
ĥirurga : surgical
ĥirurgia : surgery
ĥirurgie : surgically
ĥirurgiejo : surgery
ĥirurgiisto : surgeon
ĥirurgio : surgery (the science)
ĥirurgo : surgeon
ĥitino : chitin
ĥo : name of the letter Ĥ
ĥolecistito : cholecystitis
ĥolera : hot-tempered, fiery, choleric
ĥolero : cholera
ĥolesterolo : cholesterol
ĥora : choral
ĥoraĵo : carol, choral
ĥoralkanto : chant
ĥoralo : choral
ĥorano : choir singer, choirboy, choirgirl
ĥoraro : chorus
ĥordo : notochord
ĥordulo : chordate
ĥorduloj : chordates
ĥore : in unison, as a chorus, as a group (speaking or singing)
ĥorejo : chancel, choir loft
ĥoreo : (Sydenham’s) chorea, Saint Vitus’s dance
ĥoreografio : choreography
ĥorestro : choir director, choirmaster
ĥoristo : chorister
ĥorjambo : choriamb
ĥorkanto : chorale
ĥoro : chorus, choir
iĥneŭmono : ichneumon
iĥtiokolo : isinglass
iĥtiologio : ichthyology
iĥtiosaŭro : ichthyosaurus
imunoĥemio : immunochemistry
Invirĥeto : Inverkeithing
jaĥtisto : yachtsman
jaĥto : yacht
jeriĥa rozo : Jericho rose
Jeriĥo : Jericho
jeriĥorozo : Jericho rose
kateĥismo : catechism
kateĥisto : catechist
kateĥiza : catechetical
kateĥizado : confirmation classes
kateĥizato : catechumen
kateĥizi : to catechize
kateĥizisto : catechist
kateĥizo : catechetics
kazaĥa : Kazak, Kazakh
Kazaĥio : Kazakhstan
kazaĥo : Kazakh
Kazaĥujo : Kazakhstan
Kinloĥbervo : Kinlochbervie
Kloĥo : Clough
Kolĥido : Colchis
kolĥozo : collective farm, kolkhoz
konĥoido : conchoid
konĥoido de rekto : conchoid of Nicomedes
kuraĥo : currach
kvantummeĥaniko : quantum mechanics
liĥtenstejnano : Liechtensteiner
liĥtenŝtejnano : Liechtensteiner
Liĥtenŝtejno : Liechtenstein
Loĥalino : Lochaline
Loĥbosdalo : Lochboisdale
Loĥgilphedo : Lochgilphead
Loĥgojlhedo : Lochgoilhead
Loĥinvero : Lochinver
Loĥkarono : Lochcarron
Loĥmado : Lochmaddy
maĥinacio : machination
maĥo : Mach (aerospace)
maniĥeano : Manichaean
maniĥeisma : Manichaean
maniĥeismo : Manichaeism
mariĥuano : marijuana
masoĥismo : masochism
masoĥisto : masochist
Mastriĥto : Maastricht
meĥanika : mechanical
meĥanikaĵo : mechanism
meĥanike : mechanically
meĥanikisto : mechanic (engineer)
meĥaniko : mechanics
meĥanismo : mechanism
Meĥleno : Malines, Mechlin
Meĥlino : Malines, Mechlin
Metuŝelaĥo : Methuselah
Miĥaelo : Michael
mnemoteĥniko : mnemonics
moĥito : mojito
Moloĥo : Moloch
monaĥa : monastic
Monaĥano : Monaghan
monaĥaro : abbey
monaĥejestrino : mother superior
monaĥejestro : (Father) Superior
monaĥejo : monastery
monaĥestro : archimandrite
monaĥinaro : abbey
monaĥinejestrino : (Mother) Superior
monaĥinejo : abbey, convent, nunnery
monaĥino : nun
monaĥismo : monasticism
monaĥo : friar, monk
monarĥejo : monarchy
monarĥio : monarchy
monarĥismo : monarchism
monarĥisto : monarchist
monarĥo : monarch
morĥelo : morel
Naĥum : Nahum
navaĥa : Navaho
navaĥo : Navajo
Neĥemja : Nehemiah
neorganika ĥemio : inorganic chemistry
Noaĥo : Noah
Oĥocka Maro : Sea of Okhotsk
Oĥocko : Okhotsk
oligarĥio : oligarchy
oligarĥo : oligarch
Omaĥo : Omagh
organika ĥemio : organic chemistry
paĥidermo : pachyderm
parapsiĥologio : parapsychology
paroĥa : parochial
paroĥanaro : parishionership
paroĥano : parishioner
paroĥejo : parish
paroĥestrejo : vicarage
paroĥestro : pastor, vicar, rector
paroĥismo : parochialism
paroĥo : parish
paroniĥio : whitlow
pastromonaĥo : monk-presbyter
patriarĥo : patriarch
pereĥa kontrolo : echo check
petrolĥemio : petrochemistry
pibroĥo : pibroch
pilĥardo : pilchard
podlaĥia : Podlachian
Podlaĥio : Podlachia
poliĥetoj : polychaete
psiĥanalizo : psychoanalysis
Psiĥo : Psyche
psiĥologio : psychology
psiĥozo : psychosis
reeĥi : to re-echo
robotteĥniko : robotics
roĥo : roc
Saĥaleno : Saghalien, Sakhalin
seneĥa : anechoic
siĥo : Sikh
sinekdoĥo : synecdoche
sovĥozo : sovkhoz
spiroĥeto : spirochete
staĥanovismo : Stakhanovism
staĥanovisto : Stakhanovist
submara arĥeologio : underwater archeology
taĥikardio : tachycardia
Taĥo : Tagus
Teĥinfo : Texinfo
teĥnika : technical
teĥnika projekto : design document
teĥnikisto : technician
teĥniko : technique
teĥnokrataro : technocrats
teĥnokratio : technocracy
teĥnokratismo : technocrasism
teĥnokrato : technocrat
teĥnologia : technology
teĥnologiisto : technologist
teĥnologio : technology
teĥnologo : technology
Teĥo : TeX
Teĥrano : Teheran
toĥaro : Tokhar
traĥeo : trachea, windpipe
traĥomo : trachoma
triĥino : threadworm, trichina
triĥobezoaro : trichobezoar
triĥofagio : trichophagia
triĥotilomanio : trichotillomania
troĥeo : choree, tochee
troĥoido : trochoid
Troŝeĥano : Trossachs
Urĥiponto : Bridge of Orchy
Utreĥto : Utrecht
Valaĥio : Wallachia
Valaĥujo : Wallachia
Vanaĥino : Beauly
zeĥarja : Zechariah

3 years ago

29 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/mbalicki
mbalicki
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@amuzulo: Tiu vortaro ne havas kelkajn vortojn tre gravajn por la nuntempaj homoj. Eble vi volos ilin aldoni: :D

  • ĥal·o — khal
  • ĥal·in·o — khaleesi
  • ĥal·an·ar·o — khalasar
3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/amuzulo
amuzulo
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Mi neniam aŭdis pri ĥalo kaj ĝi ankaŭ ne estas en PIV.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mbalicki
mbalicki
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Strange!… Ĉu vere verkoj de Georgo Rajmondo Rikardo Martin ne estas ankoraŭ en la Plena Ilustrita Vortaro? :D

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DetErMinNavn
DetErMinNavn
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Please don't tell me you went through that whole list of words and indovidually highlighted every single ĥ.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/amuzulo
amuzulo
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Nope, that's just an issue with Duolingo's font.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DetErMinNavn
DetErMinNavn
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Ah, I see.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/truelefty
truelefty
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xD

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DetErMinNavn
DetErMinNavn
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Or did you simply put it into a word processing program and go find ĥ- replace with **ĥ**

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/DetErMinNavn
DetErMinNavn
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But, nevertheless, great list,thanks for sharing it ^^

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Sarah_SC
Sarah_SCPlus
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I've noticed that a portion of the Esperanto community has a certain fondness for Ĥ, while another segment dislikes it. I myself belong to the former, but i do find it fascinating that so many of us have feelings about something as seemingly mundane as a letter.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mbalicki
mbalicki
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Yeah, it is quite fascinating. :D

Tiel aŭ alie: Vivu la litero ĥo!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/vikungen

Mostly the only people in my experience not liking it is English speakers.

My language doesn't have it either, so it's just a sound I needed to practice to get right, just like English speakers (and any other speakers) not liking it should take aim to, instead of trying to remove this unique sound. With that being said, many of the worlds largest languages do have a sound equivalent of the Ĥ.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mbalicki
mbalicki
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Have a sound equivalent or at least preserve the provenance of these words with a different orthography, which is also very important from the point of view of the International Language.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Kerstmus
Kerstmus
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Yay me for being Dutch, every sentence contains a Ĥ.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/catalina_marina

Well, if you live in the north, anyway. I've always hated the sound of that letter, the soft g is so much prettier. For Esperanto, however, I practiced it.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Kerstmus
Kerstmus
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I have this g: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_velar_fricative While this is the 'harde' g: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiceless_uvular_fricative
And I believe this is the 'soft' g: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_velar_fricative
I lived in the Czech republic for a few years so I have a bit of a softer g. I read a study that the different sounds get learned by babies between 0-6 months which is exactly when I lived there! Some people actually think I come from the southern part of the Netherlands because of this.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dotifa
dotifa
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How many languages have both Ĥ and H and differentiate between the two?

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mbalicki
mbalicki
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You're surely asking about phonemes, but I'll remind again that connection to the orthography of other languages is also very important for Esperanto, being the platform of the international communication.

So I'd say that also English differentiate between “h” and “ĥ” by spelling “h” in the first case and “ch” or “kh” in the second.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/dotifa
dotifa
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Yes of course, but I don't have linguistic training so I thought that the best way to express my question. Also, English of course differentiates [h] and [x] (did I do that right?) but as far as I can tell it isn't an important distinction, as in two words aren't going to be mixed up because of the difference. I can't think of any native words that have it (I suppose the classic example is the Scottish Loch.. but here in my region of America we just say that like the word lock, like most people would say Bach as Bock)

I suppose my question is like this-- are there languages that have the difference between “h” and “ĥ" sounds change the meaning of a word? Mandarin for example could have both of those sounds but it depends on accent and they would be perceived as the same, similar with Spanish in the case of g/j. But in Esperanto, horo, ĥoro, and koro are three separate words.

I also don't mean any of these questions to be rhetorical, I am genuinely curious.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Kerstmus
Kerstmus
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I can speak for Dutch that it is the case. One example:
Hoor, goor and koor. [h], [x] and [k] respectively. These words also have more meanings themself.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/vikungen

Azerbaijani, Basque, Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hindustani, Hungarian, Irish, Korean, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Somali, Spanish, Swedish, Vietnamese

Just to name a few..

Though that short list already counts some 2,6 billion people.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/twelvetongue
twelvetonguePlus
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Yeah but in some of those languages the softer h is just silent.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/bajanisto
bajanisto
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Nu, en la finna lingvo ekzistas nur H. — Do ekzemple, al la finnalingvaj lernantoj de la rusa lingvo la rusa Х [ĥ] estas sufiĉe malfacila.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mutusen
Mutusen
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What? French has neither [h] nor [x]. But you can add Slovak to your list.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/skorpu
skorpu
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The list is misleading. In some cases it occurs only in some dialects (Portuguese, Swedish, Basque), in others it's just an allophone (Korean) or it appears only in loanwords (French, Lithuanian). In any case, I can't think of any language which has [h] and [x] as different phonemes, just as Esperanto.

By the way, you can add Russian.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/vikungen

I just went with what Wikipedia said without checking the sources as it seemingly were a large amount of languages with both sounds, though Wikipedia's basic charts of sound found in a languages probably encompasses all dialects and might thus not be valid for the majority of it's speakers like you said.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/FlynnCowan

May the ĥ live forever!

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/twelvetongue
twelvetonguePlus
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I like the way the Maltese breathy h is with a cross at the top. Its almost the same as Esperanto's, but more attractive. I would probably use it for Esperanto Gothic Lettering.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/bajanisto
bajanisto
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La litero Ĥ estas tre utlila por la rusaj nomoj, ĉar

Ekzemploj: Anna Aĥmatova, Miĥail Lermontov, Anton Ĉeĥov, …

3 years ago
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