"Es geht kaputt."
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The way I see it "kaputtgehen" is a verb just like "aussehen", both have separable prefixes, so the conjugation for the former for the third-person singular is "Es geht kaputt" and for latter "Es sieht aus": http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/kaputtgehen
For me, these verbs with separable prefixes is close to how phrasal verbs work in English.
Kaputt usually means broken... you can say "es geht kapput/das ist kapput" but has other meanings as well, all similar, for example: if you learn german for a few years and then you quit and stop talking for a long time, after some years, when someone asks you, you can say: "ich habe Deutsch gelernt, aber es ist kaputt" I tried to explain, but I am not an english speaker, so sorry for any mistakes..
No. Es geht kaputt is present tense -- either something that is breaking (now) or something that breaks (repeatedly, generally).
Also, it's not about being ruined but specifically broken.
Something pulverised into dust would be "ruined" but not "broken", for example.