Ok, after a few lessons; I think Ukrainian "makarony" is a term for every type of pasta in existence - with regards to this language. Borrowed from the Greeks as "makaria".
Irrelevant: The american Italians will be quick to point out different types of pasta( ie: penne, mezze penne, spaghetti etc...) Most of this pasta has the same ingredients, just cut into different shapes. This is how I see it. I might be wrong though.?.?
You are right! We use макарони (вироби макаронні) for any type of pasta, also we use спагетті only for spaghetti.
It seems "macaroni" should be an acceptable translation in addition to "pasta".
To indicate a variety of pasta in the shape of narrow tubes it is in common usage in English. Macaroni with cheese is quite well known as a popular pasta dish, which wikipedia states is "Widespread throughout United Kingdom, United States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand".
I don't know how well this usage fits with Ukrainian usage though. I've been presuming the Ukrainian макарони can be used the same way we generally say pasta. We might in fact mean any of penne, macaroni, spaghetti, fusilli, linguine, conchiglie. I think all of those (except conchiglie) are widely used by English speakers. Probably some English speakers would add a few other varieties of pasta to that list.