"beach" is actually a pretty generic term in English and we use it for most places with sand by the side of the ocean (just like "kumsal"). It can be rocks as well though.
It doesn't have to be a tourist destination for recreation like "plaj." "sahil/kıyı" are more like shore/coast (although there are a lot of blurred lines here).
There is definitely not a 1 to 1 correlation between all of these words in Turkish and English.
Let me quote Anna from a comment below:
"Is there any...?" for uncountable entities, "Are there any...?" for countable items.
---> So in English you should use the plural form "are there."
"var mı" can have both meanings "is there" and "are there" depending on the context.
It reminds me of a conversation I participated in on Facebook a while back, about the difference between Esperanto "plaĝo" and "strando"; Reta Vortaro lists them as synonyms but Wikipedia notes a difference the same as as between Turkish "kumsal" and "plaj" (that is, "strando" is any beach, where "plaĝo" is a human-developed beach).
I can't quite put my finger on it, but it doesn't sound right (in my humble opinion) with "any" and the singular "beach". Both of these sound correct and interchangeable to me: Are there any beaches? Is there a beach?
But "Is there any beach?" sounds incomplete somehow... Is there any beach with a restaurant? Is there any beach with trees for shade? etc.
I apologize that I can't offer a specific grammar rule or an outside source to support my humble opinion... But if it sounds the same to you, perhaps it's a regional difference? :-)
A-ha, thank you! I checked some English grammar platforms, and the most frequent answer by those users was: "Is there any...?" for uncountable entities, "Are there any...?" for countable items. Another user held that "Are there any..." asks for the presence in some specific location ("beaches in Hungary") whereas "Is there any" asks for possible existence per se (similar to your "beach with a restaurant/trees for shade"). I guess my brain was set to (uncountable) beach 'experience' rather than sand-covered square metres of ground next to waters, when I wrote "any beach" ;-))
"Macaristan'da kumsal var mı?" - Are there any beaches in Hungary?
I'll try to explain:
Macaristan'da - In Hungary. A proper noun with an apostrophe + "-da" locative suffix.
Kumsal - beach or beaches in English & singular in Turkish.
Var mı? - are there?
Are there beaches in Hungary? - This is a very accurate English translation to the Turkish question & I agree with you. The word "any" is not needed in the English translation answer.
The Turkish question is only asking if there are beaches in Hungary & "any" does act as a determiner in the English answer.
Any - Determiner - (pronoun) & (adverb)
Never realized that there was such a contraversy. Here on the Great Lakes between Canada and the USA they sure enough talk of beaches, even though they are fresh water and it is possible on a very clear day to see Canada across Lake Erie from a hilltop just south of North East, Pennsylvania. Possibly the Great Lakes are an exception because they are often thought of as inland seas?
And by mediation I meant, the translation is not exact so as to perhaps have a more natural-sounding sentence as a result. I however, am comfortable with "are there beaches in hungary". As to the answer to the actual question.... in english, there is the word "shore", which people in New Jersey use haha...