Hmm, I had the same question (i.e. How is "klare" different from "kan gjøre"?) I read the previous comments, but was still confused, so I searched around and, if I understand correctly, "å klare" implies "can do" in the sense of "manage (to do)" or "have success (in doing)" or "bring oneself (to do)." In this way, it seems to coincide in meaning with the German verb "schaffen" (if that helps anybody...). Ex: Han bare ikke klarer å være punktlig.= He just can't be on time. (i.e. He never manages to/can't bring himself to be on time.); Du klarer det!= You can do it!/You can make it! (i.e. You can succeed in what you are attempting.). I learned that one can even use "kan" and "klare" in the same sentence, ex: Vi kan fortsatt klare det!= We can still make it! (i.e We can still achieve our objective/reach our goal). Jeg håper at jeg klarte å hjelpe noen. (=I hope that I managed to help someone). :)
I don't feel competent enough to hold this discussion, not to mention to impose my opinion, yet I base my judgment on this. It is the best Norwegian <-> Russian dictionary I have been able to find so far. If you have a better one, please share, I would appreciate that.
As for your argument for a tense consider the examples below:
'jeg er født ...' - 'I was born ...' - present tense in Norwegian / past tense in English
'we're having a staff meeting tomorrow' - 'Завтра у нас собрание персонала' - present continuous in English / future tense in Russian.
Word-for-word translation is usually a bad idea
Ok, I get your point. I checked 'klare' in some dictionaries and you're most likely right. The word 'справляюсь' has confused me so I thought about 'kan håndtere' first, which also the correct translation I believe. As for 'Я сумею/смогу', I supposed it could be 'jeg skal kunne' due to future tense but according to Google Trends nearly nobody tells like that, so my apologies. I don't use any particular dictionary but I like this one (not sure if it better than yours): http://lexin.udir.no/