Well, I do not really know how I can translate this rule into English, but just to share my two cents, I wanted to let you know that this rule is called "Ünlü düşmesi". Institute of Turkish Language has a web page for the definition of this rule, but it's in Turkish. To the best of my knowledge, only Turkish language has this rule, so I do not know its English equivalent. http://tdk.gov.tr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=179:Unlu-Dusmesi-&catid=50:yazm-kurallar&Itemid=132
btw about the third rule there İçeri, dışarı, ileri, şura, bura, ora, yukarı, aşağı gibi sözler ek aldıklarında sonlarında bulunan ünlüler düşmez: içerde değil içeride, dışardan değil dışarıdan, ilerde değil ileride, şurda değil şurada, burda değil burada, orda değil orada, yukarda değil yukarıda, aşağda değil aşağıda vb.
those are mostly pronounced not spelled with a "vowel drop", dışarda içerde yukarda etc
Thanks for posting the name of the rule! It translates to something like "vowel drop" or "dropped vowel" in English.
I don't think English really has this type of vowel drop, anymore, but it used to, and you can see it, sometimes, in old words. ("Brethren" is one: it's an archaic form of "brothers," and it came from pluralizing "brethere." They added an -(e)n ending, but the word became "brethren" instead of "bretheren.") Swedish, which is a cousin of English, still does some of this, when it adds endings to certain words.
"E" gets dropped a lot when adding suffixes.. like "ing" which is not unlike fikir to fikrim. There are a few words where "E" is kept and not removed... like "Ageing" so that's the uncommon English form.
Not quite the same but there are some strange letter drops in English like... 1 dice (singular) but 2 die (plural)... though everyone normally says dice for plural too. Its not quite correct ;)
Yes, we definitely drop a lot of final e's, in English. (And you're almost correct about "dice," but it's actually 1 die and 2 dice. It's a strange word. =) )
I can't think of a situation in the modern language where we drop the vowel before the root word's final consonant (the way "fikirim" becomes "fikrim"). I think it's partly because of the endings used in modern English, and partly because even when we don't pronounce vowels, we still write them.
Hiçbir means "no" or perhaps "without" here. It is making the sentence negative. There is no "single" in the sentence. Correct translation for "Hiçbir fikrim yok" is "I have no idea". In Turkish you usually find double negation, here "Hiçbir" and "yok". May anybody correct me if I am wrong.