My biggest problem with real life conversation will probably be hearing all these suffixes from Natives. How difficult is it to hear the -mi- in Gelmiyorsun vs geliyorsun?
Another one from the family lesson was Anneannemin. There are others, but this got my attention the quickest.
I have trouble with the TTS, imagine what real life is like! Are my concerns overblown, or is this something foreigners have serious trouble with?
The difference between "geliyorsun" and "gelmiyorsun" is more than just one "m". The stress is different.
Geliyorsun is stressed on the "i": Gel-í-yorsun. And the "ge" part sounds like the "ge" in "get" in English.
Gelmiyorsun is stressed on the "e": "Gél-miyorsun", and the "gel" part rhymes with "pal" in English.
It is something that does take a while to adjust to. They are all said in a way that they can be understood by natives (I mean...they have to understand each other). It took me a while to get there, but I can understand pretty much everything at native speed, even if there are 8 suffixes. When Turks speak Turkish, they don't have to think about what suffixes they are attaching (similar to how native English speakers don't have to think about suffixes when we say 'intergenerationality")
No. The whole point of using "musun" is to let the listeners know that you're expecting an answer. It's like: "Hey, this was a question by the way!"
But the moment you use a question word like "Neden", we already understand that it's a question. No need for any further "mu".
kpOv..., it a good question. I didn't find any rule, any explanation.. I assume that this construction with the possessive pornoun = the suffix "le" or "la" is a Turkish peculiarity. Heve a look there: http://www.turkishclass.com/forumTitle_54486. They mention the instrumental pronouns. "Benimle"= "with me", etc.
You can't say "are not you". English requires the "Verb-Subject (+not)" order in questions.
If you combine the verb with 'not', like "aren't", it's fine to take it as a whole: "aren't you".
But if you don't combine them, only the verb moves to the beginning: "are you not".