"My tooth hurts a lot, I cannot stand it."
Translation:Dişim çok ağrıyor, dayanamıyorum.
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Ok....here we go:
dayanmak: "to edure (it)"
dayanmamak: "not to endure (it)" "not to stand (it)"
dayanamamak: "to be no able to stand (it) " "to be not able to endure (it)"
dayanamıyor: "(S)he cannot stand (it)" "(S)he cannot endure (it)"
"dayanamıyorum": "I cannot stand (it)" "I cannot endure (it)"
The suffix -A found direct after the verb root corresponds to ability. In the word "yapamam,":
I am afraid you couldn't break "dayanamıyorum" down perfectly my friend. I mean the structure is correct, but you have a problem in the order of the suffixes we have for this word. I don't know if you are a native speaker, but i am guessing not. However, it is still very impressing for a non-native speaker, as many native speakers wouldn't be able to do this...
So, here we go:
dayanmak: to stand
dayan(mak) + -(a)bilmek or -(e)bilmek = dayanabilmek: to be able to stand
dayan-a-ma-mak = dayanamamak: not to be able to stand
the rest goes the same.
The tricky part here is we don't have a suffix "-a" making the verbs associated with ability. That suffix is "-(a/e)bilmek" and in order to make it negative we have three options and all of them have different meanings. Let's leave the negative part for now, I will explain it later.
This type of tense in which we use "-ebilmek" is called "yeterlilik kipi" (could be translated as ability tense), and it is used in several conditions:
The first and most common type of usage is to express ability and power to do something as you can also see in this example. "Bu acıya dayanabilirim" = "I can stand this pain."
Another common usage is when trying to express a possibility. "Önümüzdeki ay Şangay'a gidebilirim." = "I might (could) go to Shangai next month."
The third type is in a case of permission. "O kitapla işim bitti, artık alabilirsin." = "I am done with that book, you can (may) now take it."
The last case is the one where you want to "kindly" ask for something. "Menüyü getirebilir misiniz?" = "Could you bring the menu?" (The more rude versions of these would be: "Menüyü getirir misiniz?" = "Can you bring the menu?")
As you can see, the usage of "-(e)bilmek" is very similar to the use of "can - could" in English.
So, in order to use this tense with a negative meaning, I told that we had three options. I will stick to the verb "dayanabilmek" and try to explain:
1: dayan-a-ma-mak: Dayanamam. (I can't stand it because I don't have the ability to stand it.)
2: dayan-ma-y-a-bilmek: Dayanmayabilirim. (I have the ability to stand it, but I just might not stand it.)
3: dayan-a-ma-y-a-bilmek: Dayanamayabilirim. (I might not stand it, it is not certain that I have the ability to stand it, and there's the possibilitiy that I cannot stand it.)
So yeah, there you go. This is the beauty of Turkish. It is so systematic, and there are really very few exceptions, you just can't help but love it. I must also underline the fact that the verb "dayanmak" might not the best example to express the difference in the negative meanings. The verb "gelmek" is better I guess:
Gelirim (I come or I will come) Gelmem (I don't come or I won't come)
Gelebilirim (I can come)
- Gelemem (I can't come, because I am not able to)
- Gelmeyebilirim (I have the possibility to come, but I might choose not to come)
- Gelemeyebilirim (I might not come even though I would want to. There's a possibility that I won't be able to come)
Let's see more in detail: Imagine we are asked the question: "Bu cumartesi bizimle bale gösterisine gelmek ister misin?" = "Do you want to come to the ballet show with us this Saturday?"
The possible answers would be: Without "-ebilmek": Positive: -Evet tabi, seve seve gelirim. = Yeah sure, I would love to come.
Negative: -Son sefer olanlardan sonra sizinle hiçbir yere gelmem. = After what happened the last time, I will not come (go) to anywhere with you.
With "-ebilmek": Positive: -Cumartesi işim yok, sanırım gelebilirim. = I don't have anything to do on Saturday, I think I can come.
Negatives: -Cumartesi programım var, üzgünüm gelemem. = I have a plan on Saturday, I am sorry I can't come.
-Aslında sizinle bir şeyler yapmak güzel olurdu, ama bale gösterisi sevmediğim için gelmeyebilirim. = Actually, it would be nice to do something with you, but I might not come because I don't like ballet shows.
-Cumartesi sabah çok yoğunum, eğer işim akşama sarkarsa gelemeyebilirim. = I am really busy Saturday morning, if I still have things to do for the evening, I might not be able to come.
Here are some other examples that might help get rid of possible confusions (First verb positive, the second one negative. I basically chose one of the three possibilities for the negative meanings with the so-called ability tense.)
Okuyorum (I am reading)------> Okumuyorum (I am not reading) Okuyabiliyorum (I can read) ------> Okuyamıyorum (I can't read)
Yaparım (I make)------> Yapmam (I don't make) Yapabilirim (I can make)------> Yapamayabilirim (I might not be able to make it)
İzlerim (I watch)------> İzlemem (I don't watch) İzleyebilirim (I can watch)-----> İzlemeyebilirim (I have the ability to watch but I might choose not to.)
Hope it helps!
Thank you very much for this extensive tutorial! It really put light on the differences between I can't / It's possible that I can't, but I'm still a little confused about these two:
Gelmeyebilirim = I have the possibility to come, but I might choose not to come
Gelemeyebilirim = I might not come even though I would want to. There's a possibility that I won't be able to come
It's a bit strange how this little e changes the meaning so drastically.
The first word says "It's possible, but probably not", the second one: "Perhaps it's not possible, so probably not", right?