"In my childhood I played hockey."
Translation:In mijn kindertijd heb ik hockey gespeeld.
Well you technically could but it doesn't sound very natural. The more natural would be gedurende (during) but that's not the literal translation of the original sentence.
You can also substitute kindertijd for the much more common jeugd. "In mijn jeugd speelde ik hockey" is something a Dutch person would most likely say. Or "toen ik jong was speelde ik hockey" (when I was young, I played hockey).