Translation:The station is located next to the bus stop.
That's definitely also possible, if you want to be more specific.
But I assume "haltejo" is often used for short, similar to how "station" is often used for "train station" in English (and Esperanto).
Not much of a difference. Have you heard this puzzle? "If a tree falls in the forest and nobody is there to hear it, does it make a sound?"
Troviĝi implies being found (by an unspecified someone), situi implies being in a good location. Otherwise they're synonyms.