"Whose house is this?"
Translation:Чий це дім?
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Будинок is a building for living, "house" in its primary meaning. It also can be used to mean any building (but that's usually будівля).
Дім is mainly a place where people live, home. It does not have to be a separate building/house; it may be just a flat or even a room. But it is occasionally used to mean house
Is there a difference regarding the pronunciation between дим and дім? I've been wondering about that for a while and don't know any native speakers of Ukrainian.
Have a look at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_phonology, in particular https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Close_front_unrounded_vowel for "і" and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near-close_front_unrounded_vowel for "и"
Really though if you want me to say "Whose is this house?" by way of translation then you need to start with the same english equivalent. "Чий це дім" is not the same as "Whose house is this?", at least to a native english speaker. Why the sentence gymnastics with this one?