"What is a pineapple saying?"
Translation:Kion ananaso diras?
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A "pineapple saying" is a phrase widely used among pineapples. For instance, "Don't judge a fruit by it's spikes", or the equally popular (if directly contradictory) "Don't be surprised when a fruit with short spikes fails to get the point". It should be noted that the beauty of these sayings are lost when translated from the original Pineappleese. It should be also noted that almost all pineapple sayings revolve around their spiky exteriors. What that says about their culture, I am not qualified to say.
Mi ne estas ananaso, mi nur konas kelkajn ananasojn.
There are linking verbs, transitive verbs, and intransitive verbs.
The most well-known linking verbs are "to be" and "to become." They link to parts of the same rank and do not take an accusative.
I am a professor. – Mi estas profesoro.
I am happy. – Mi estas feliĉa.
I will become a grandmother. – Mi iĝos avino.
The intransitive verbs do not take a direct object. No need for an accusative.
I am sleeping. – Mi dormas.
The transitive verbs take a direct object. This object has to be in the accusative. In English it is most visible with the personal pronouns. In Esperanto the accusative object takes an -n.
I see him. – Mi vidas lin.
She is riding the horse. – Ŝi rajdas la ĉevalon.
Peter is drinking coffee. – Petro trinkas kafon.
This has the advantage that you can change the word order easily and it is always clear where the object is.
Lin vidas mi. – It is him who I see.
Ĉevalon ŝi rajdas. – It is a horse that she is riding.
Kafon Petro trinkas. – It is coffee that Peter is drinking.
It is the same with the question pronouns.
Kio okazis? – What has happened?
Kiu venas? – Who is coming?
Kion vi vidas? – What do you see?
Kiun vi konas? – Who do you know?
Beside this function of marking the direct object, the accusative has some other functions.
It give the measurement to an adjective: It is three metres long. – Ĝi estas tri metrojn longa.
It gives the time: Mi alvenos la dekduan de aŭgusto. – I will arrive on August the 12th. I have been waiting for you for two hours. – Mi atendis vin du horojn. (There are two accusatives here: One for the object [vin] and one for the time [du horojn].)
It distinguishes between location and direction with prepositions which can have both meanings: I am in the house. – Mi estas en la domo. (Location, no accusative with the prepositon en) I go into the house. – Mi iras en la domon. (Direction, accusative with the propositon) I go to the house. – Mi iras al la domo. (Direction, but the prepostion al can give a direction only, thus no accusative)