No. In some situations, it can mean either.
Duolingo has done a poor job of consistently using one or the other as the translation for dies- words and a poor job explaining it. jener, jene, jenes are the corresponding words for "that", but those aren't commonly used and usually only if it's necessary to point out something else that is separated/distant.
In some areas, Germans use the definite article with stress on it to mean "this". Others say something like "das Buch hier" to mean this book. Sometimes "this" and "that" are not distinguished clearly. In one forum I was reading, someone asked about it and a native German speaker said that it's a difficult topic and there is no clear answer that applies from one region to the next.