I think that it's meant to be given as hints not all of the listings are correct.
This dictionary site only lists "population" as the definition for "Bevölkerung."
Also note German has many words for "the people," with slightly different meanings. See here: http://german.about.com/library/weekly/aa021206a.htm
There is no clear context, since we don't know what group of people the sentence talks about, but if we're talking statistics, the term "population" is customary.
Also, I perceive it to be superordinate to "inhabitants/Einwohner", allowing to also group people by certain characteristics (race, class, religion), in addition to the place they live. "People/Menschen" would be an extra step up in the meaning, and I think it might be used here, but without some extra, like "people of Berlin" or "black people", it would sound like referring to people as species rather than people as population. At least it would to me. Am I making any sense?
Anyhow, if there is already a perfect match in another language, no need to get creative ^^