Here you learn full sentences. Later you can make them shorter. In Esperanto I use "2a kaj 5"
Am I the only one to think that sentence is ambiguous? I wrote "There are two minutes after the fifth (minute)". Someone could say this to someone else who have not watches the last two minutes of a clip, for example.
Perhaps, but the form is so well ingrained that very few Esperantists will think minutes here, not unless you stated it explicitly. Estas at the beginning of a sentence can be translated as either; "There is/are" or "It is/They are". Usually, when discussing time, the "it is" meaning takes precedence.
Your example of ambiguity might more likely be stated: Havos du minutojn plu, post la kvina minuto. However, since I don't like ambiguous timing on my YouTube clips, I might just say: Tiu ĉi havas sep minutojn. And without watches? Just look at the corner of your screen.
First, 'minutoj' is the subject of the verb 'estas' and not the object. Second, the verb 'estas' is not transitive, has never an 'n', does not describe an action of the somebody against something. Third, there is no rule that quantities needs 'n', but the 'n' can appear with quantities for other reasons.
Du minutoj post la kvina estas (nun). Du minutoj pasis post la kvina.
Mi havas du minutojN por fini la laboron.
In tips and notes of lessons on topic "numbers". There was an example: La ŝtofo estas du metrojn longa.
Right, but not easy to explain. There can't be "La ŝtofo estas longa 2 metroj" since cloth is not meters. We must insert a preposition "La ŝtofo estas longa JE 2 metroj" for the relation between "longa" and "metroj".
In some cases, we can delete the preposition by adding "n" after the noon. So "je 2 metroj" becomes "2 metrojn". Now the sentence becomes «La ŝtofo estas du metrojn longa» or «La ŝtofo estas longa du metrojn» or even «La ŝtofo longas du metrojn»
Try just to understand, do not yet use it.
I.. don't understand anything. What are these "prepositions", I am not falimiar with lingustic terms? The word "je" hasn't been explained yet, so I have no idea what could it mean.
I hope I will understand over time..
To piggyback off what DavidLamb3 said, the word "preposition" is related to the words "pre" and "position." (I think David has one detail wrong.) What this means is that in a sentence, they come in the "pre position" -- that is, they come before a set of words and perform a certain function there. Examples of prepositions, as Berto said, are in,on, to, over, about, from, under, since. These words (in Esperanto anyway) always come before a "noun phrase" (another term, sorry.)
- in the garden
- to my friend
- on the fence
- over water
- about three PM
and so on
Edit: One year later, I have a blog post which explains this in some detail.
The given example came from another lesson. Don't try to understand now. Prepositions are: in, into, to, over, about, from, of, under, since....
There are 420 minutes after five in the evening, or 1140 minutes after five in the morning.
For example... 5:02 is a deadline to do something, I can say "There are only two minutes after five. " It is a case for this sentence, isn't it...
Do Esperantists tend to give times as am&pm, North American-style? Or use a 24-hour clock? Or does it vary locally?