Translation:Friday the thirteenth is my birthday.
Can someone explain why "har" precedes "jeg" here? I feel like we learned this in a prior lesson but I'm rusty.
English used to do this at one time ( reverse the verb so it always becomes 2nd place in the sentence). It exists here-and-there still, for example, as "Hardly had he came when..." and "Sit down, said the teacher!" or "Here comes the bus!" or "Never have so many sacrificed themselves for so few"
if you fancy a bit more on the subject of "inversion" ( I am by no means an expert but have my own way of looking at things and am happy to be told I'm wrong too). The rule to invert the verb and subject if you start with an adverb, or a phrase of time, is simple enough (Tomorrow go-I to town). But you never do it after a conjunction like "and" or "but". Remember that one. There was for me an urge to write " And went I there by bus" or "but liked she not the meal" which took me a time to re-learn was wrong. Also, if the object is a phrase by itself, then it too, isnt inverted... 'I told her, the answer is wrong' ( not "I told her, is the answer wrong!").
The verb goes in the second place of a sentence. "Fredag den trettende" counts as the first place in the sentence.
How would you say: "I have a brithday on friday the 13th."? (Like someone else's birthday party? Or in Norway you only say bursdagensfest for things like those.)
You can say "Jeg skal i [bursdag/bursdagsselskap] på fredag den trettende".
Could this sentence also be reworded as ""Fredag den trettende er bursdagen min"?
You'd say "(...) bursdagsdatoen min", in which case it would translate to "the date of my birthday".
I would have no problem using that phrasing. It might be a dialect thing, but I really see no problem with the sentence "Fredag den trettende er bursdagen min".
Wouldn't that mean every time it's Friday the 13th it's your birthday even if a year didn't pass
"Friday the 13th, I have a birthday," is as valid a translation as the one provided. It should be accepted.
I'm no expert but, I don't think so... I think your translation would require an 'en' in the Norwegian sentence. I think this sentence is only indicating that the speaker's birthday on Friday the 13th, not just 'a birthday'.
Indefinite articles are very often omitted in Norwegian. "Jeg er lærer," and "Jeg er en lærer," are both correct and have exactly the same meaning but the first one of the two would be much more often used.
They are often omitted, but you can't always add them at will, and there are specific situations where omitting the article still means the same. "Jeg har bursdag" and "Jeg har en bursdag" are examples of sentences that mean two different things, depending on whether the article is there or not. If you say "Fredag den trettende har jeg bursdag." you are talking about when your own birthday is, but if you say "Fredag den trettende har jeg en bursdag." you are expressing that you are going to attend a birthday party, which isn't your own.
You are right. Your comments were needed. Articles cannot always be added without changing the meaning. In hindsight, I could have been more informative had I dealt with the translation than I was by providing two sentences as examples of the indefinite article not being required.