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As an imperative, it would be either pergunte àquela mulher (formal) or pergunta pra aquela mulher (informal). Pra is the reduction of para and it's not accepted by our grammars yet, although we only say pra (informally). A more irreverent, but nevertheless much more authentic way of transcribing what we say would be pergunta praquela muher/mulhé.
"Ask" is transitive in this use: (you ask someone, not "ask to someone")
• The student asked the teacher a question.
• The doctor asked the patient to undress.
"Ask" is intransitive when you "ask for something":
The teacher "asked for help" in distributing the exams.
Bill "asked for" my telphone number and address.
The prepositions make them wrong. "Ask at" refers to a place, not a person. - "Ask at the information center".
"Ask to" is only used with infinitive verbs "Students, you need to ask to leave the room" This is rarely used; normally we say "ask permission to"
The only correct response is "Ask that woman" - no preposition between "ask" and the noun.
"That one woman" is also wrong (or at least does not mean the same). You can only have:
- one woman = uma mulher = a woman
- that woman = aquela mulher (= essa mulher)
- that one = aquela (= essa)
- that = aquilo/aquela (= isso/essa)
The last one can only be used in some specific cases. See this article. Generally you cannot use together a pronoun (such as "one") and a noun (such as "woman").
Se eu tratar meu interlocutor por TU, direi: "Pergunta àquela mulher."
Seu eu escolher tratar meu interlocutor por VOCÊ, direi: "Pergunte àquela mulher."<pre>
Pergunta TU Pergunte VOCÊ Perguntemos nós, Perguntai vós, perguntem eles.
TU Pergunta àquela mulher. VOCÊ Pergunte àquela mulher. NÓS Perguntemos àquela mulher. VÓS Perguntai ( vós) àquela mulher. Vós é usado para tratamento a autoridades. ELES Diga-lhes que perguntem àquela mulher.