On the contrary, English would could it in any of the three positions. The colour of the sentence changes slightly, so tone of voice would be important:
"Exactly where are you?" - I hear this being said with surprise, annoyance, impatience or demandingness, typically, with heavy stress on "where".
"Where are you, exactly?" - This seems to me to put emphasis on the "exactly", which, in my ears, communicates a desire for very specific, detailed responses.
"Where exactly are you?" - This one is far more neutral, with no particular stress. It's the most natural phrasing to my ears for a normal, unloaded question.
I fully understand your question, with our diphtongs and compounded words a lot of the conjoining letters often change character. An island, "en øy" is the exact same sound. It's a diphtong and one sound.
It's a compunded word originally from German, related to "nøye" and the add-on "-aktig" (-ish) which can be added to several words ("blåaktig" = blueish).