Because «livraria» is not "library;" it is a false friend. «livraria» is where you go to buy books, which in English is called "bookstore." «biblioteca» is where you go to check out books for a period of time and then return them once one is done using them, which in English is called "library."
In another sentence on Duo they put fica after the noun. How do you determine the placement, are both acceptable?
Onde o clube fica? Onde fica a livraria?
Also, when/why would you use fica instead of é?
Onde é o banheiro?
Both of them work.
I think the most common usage in my region is "Onde fica....?" or "Onde é...?"
For unmovable things (like buildings), you can use "é/fica" (singular) and "são/ficam" (plural) interchangebably
That is because some words in English with "dd" or "tt" such as "buddy" and "pretty" sound to the Portuguese (and Spanish) ear like «r»; they are both pronounced as alveolar taps, in IPA, [ɾ].
Is Onde fica formal and onde é informal? What about onde esta? When is that used?
After reading Paulenrique's comment, it would seem that usage depends on the region in which the Portuguese is being spoken. As for the formality, they are all the same and can be used in both formal and informal situations. In Portugal, or at least central Portugal, «onde fica» is good for this type of situation, finding a location/building in the neighborhood. I never really hear or use «onde é», unless you are making the question longer, e.g. «Onde fica a livraria?» → «Onde é que fica a livraria?». They mean the same thing, but the second would literally translate to "Where is it that the library is?" This structure is not at all common in English, but it is quite common at least in European Portuguese (and other Romance languages) and possibly Brazilian Portuguese as well. «Onde está», on the other hand, would be used for if you lost something and you are seeking it now, asking where it is; you would not use «fica» or «é» for when you lose something and are looking for it.
As a slightly more formal construction, "where do you find the bookstore" seems right to me. Is it right / is that the right level of slight added formality (never mind that duolingo doesn't accept it)?
Fair enough, but GT is always more "word by word" than idiomatic…I'm keeping an open mind until told otherwise by a native speaker : )
Where is the bookshop?
Where is the bookstore?
(Both phrases are right.)
Onde fica a livraria? Onde é a livraria? (Ambas as traduções são corretas.)