Perhaps, though the rather neutral tone and matter-of-fact "I have made a phone call" is slightly different than "I have called on the phone."
Though there are multiple contexts for "I have called on the phone," I think foremost I tend to imagine a frustrated expression.
"I have written letters, I have sent emails, I have called on the phone, and still I have not yet received an answer."
In any case though, I think the intended message is going to get across with either version when speaking with someone, based on the context of the conversation and the experience.
I have phoned is accepted now. July 2018. However, "I have called" is not but should be. Honestly, what else would you use these days to make a call other than a telephone. Mentioning the method by which you called seems very redundant. It's not as if people are walking around with hand-printed calling cards anymore.
"I have called on the phone", does not make any sense in English. I have called - THEM / HIM / HER /, or the name of a person or company - on the phone, would be perfectly acceptable. However, "I have called on the phone", is nonsense. Sometimes you just can't translate word for word and this is one of those occasions. It's necessary to interpret... The two are not the same thing.