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Is langsam derived from lang? If so then are there other examples of words changed by appending -sam?
Yes, a few. At the moment, the only one that is coming to me is 'einsam' which means lonely.
Or "lonesome" if you want to use the related English suffix.
"schweigsam" means someone who is often silent, from "schweigen" which is to remain silent.
"sparsam" is someone who likes to economise, to save money, the opposite of spendthrift, from "sparen" which is to save money.
If you want to make it clear, you can add "hier" and "da" (literally, here/there) - this house, das Haus hier; that house, das Haus da.
But plain "das Haus" can be either of them, and context will tell.
Yes, e.g. "eine lange Zeit": http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/lang_Adjektiv_auch_raeumlich , sense 2. (sense 1 is the spatial sense: big distance rather than big duration.)
Note that the adverb for time is usually lange: http://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/lange
So one would usually say, "Musstest du lange warten?" (Did you have to wait long?) rather than "Musstest du lang warten?".
I translated "Das ist lang!" to "It is long", but it was marked as incorrect. Is it really incorrect? What about "Das ist groß"? That can mean both "It is big" and "That is big".
Why am I incorrect?