Translation:The father tells the child that it is important.
Actually, you are right. It is so important to separate out the demonstrative in other languages that I always forget it doesn't work exactly like that in German.
I always use different forms to distinguish between the and that in German but that doesn't mean the German language or most German speakers require it.
Wait until you get to Japanese where they just drop everything like that if it isn't necessary for emphasis or to be understood. Subject, object, nouns, pronouns, verbs, the whole works.
Went means.... I went to the store and bought some ice cream .... if you had already been talking about a new ice cream store. Comes from being reluctant to tell the other person to direct his attention to something if it isn't necessary to do so, I suppose.
The father is telling the child that something is important, ie, to look both ways when crossing a road, not that the child is important. So the 'es' refers to that thing. The 'es' does not refer to the child, although technically it would be correct to say 'it' if the important thing referred to, was the child, because there is no indication of the child's gender.
Usually, es is translated as "it" on this course.
But German has grammatical gender, and the gender of the third-person singular pronoun er, sie, es will usually agree with the grammatical gender of the referent.
English has lost grammatical gender, and so the gender of the third-person singular pronoun "he, she, it" will usually agree with the natural gender of the referent.
This means that while German will use es (neuter) to refer to das Kind (neuter), many English speakers will use "he" or "she" to refer to the child, if they know that the child is a boy or a girl, respectively. (Many English speakers even refuse to use the neuter-gender "it" to refer to a child at all, even if the child's gender is not known; others will only use it for very small babies but not for older children.)
So, "es" is used for the "neuter" grammatical gender too.
I was confused, because I knew that "it" is used to refer to things that are not humans (and sometimes is not used for pets either) and never to things that are humans or pets. I have assumed that the rule for using "es" is the same, i.e. "es" cannot be used to refer to a human (e.g. child - Kind) or a pet.
Thank you a lot!
The verb goes to the end of a subordinate clause, such as one started by dass.
In both sentences, the verb (ist, schlafe) is at the end.
Whether the result looks inverted or not depends on how many elements are in the sentence; at any rate, inverting or not inverting is not what the word order rule is about.
- "The guests are showing a man the kitchen."
- "The guests are showing the kitchen to a man."
Use "to" when the indirect object comes after the direct object. Do not use "to" when the indirect object comes before the direct object.
So in "The guests are showing a man the kitchen", "to" is not used. (And it works similar to "tell a person something", where the person is the indirect object and is before the direct object without "to".)
Dropping the preposition forces the listener/reader to use word order or context to be sure exactly what the sentence means.
Your examples of expressions that are used all the time that don't have the preposition are exactly that. Give me and show me are stock phrases that are so common, much of the time they don't even have to be finished before their meaning is understood.
The context in your example, The guests are showing a man the kitchen might seem abundantly clear but not to developers of intelligent kitchens in smart homes, designers of smart security systems and followers of performance groups called The Kitchen. They will have to use calculating the word order to render a judgment as to which is the direct object and which is the indirect object in the sentence. Not an impossible task or even difficult. But it is a distraction from the flow of the sentence, easily rectified by including the preposition.
Good style isn't about following rules so much. Instead, it is more about making it easier for people to understand what you say and write. A lot of times it is about ....why not? Why not put the preposition in the phrase or sentence if it helps? At least that is the case where I am from.
It is not "Das Vater", because Vater has the masculine grammatical gender and it is in the nominative grammatical case. And it is not "Das Kind", because Kind has the neuter grammatical gender and it is in the dative grammatical case. And it is in dative, (I am not so sure on that, but it is something that could be looked for) because "sagen", the infinitive form of "sagt", requires the dative.
I'm a learner, but as far as I see, it's not about the nouns. Until now, evey noun can take the dative case (until now, I did not meet an exception). If you want to make some lists, three lists could be: 1. dative verbs 2. dative prepositions 3. nouns that don't end in "-n" when they are in Dative, Plural
Everything after says in your sentence is what the father actually says. But the German sentence does not have the father saying ....dem Kind/the kid. In the Duo German example the father says something to the kid.
You tell a child something or you say something to a child.
"Say" and "Tell" are not synonymous, since they conform to different contexts in a sentence. When you "Say" something, you are making an statement (as in the german sentence). When you "Tell" something, you are just referring to something related, which is clearly not the meaning of the german sentence.Duo often makes this sort of mistakes, so please check them up and correct it.
Shouldn't be correct to say: "The father tells the child that is important". That works here as a pronoun and makes "it" not necessary. Or am I not correct?
You are not. The German sentence has es (= it) and not das (= that). So using "that" as a pronoun rather than "it" is not correct.
When you tap the words, the male voice pronounces "Kind" like the English word "kind." This has been a consistent issue with the male voice, and not just with that word. Its fine when it reads a sentence but the individual words are not right. Someone needs to check the coding.
Dem vs Den
And if you're more the video type, maybe these will help you out. When you've got a regular noun in the Dativ case, the article changes again. Der becomes dem, die becomes der, das becomes dem and the plural die becomes den.
Why is it "der Vater" and "dem Kind"? Wouldn't both be dem?
No -- why? Then you can't distinguish between the subject and the indirect object of the verb any more.
der Vater is in the nominative case as the subject of the verb.
dem Kind is in the dative case as the indirect object of the verb (the "recipient" of the telling).
How is this sentence dative?
Sentences aren't dative.
Parts of sentences are in various cases to show their roles in the sentence.
In this sentence, der Vater is in the nominative case because he is the subject of the verb sagen and dem Kind is in the dative case because it is the indirect object -- the "recipient" of the words.
The direct object of the verb sagen is the clause dass es wichtig ist.