Is there a difference between verbs 'fressen' and 'essen'?
"essen" for humans, "fressen" for animals or humans who eat like pigs.
As I know that we use “fressen“ with wild animals so the sentience should be “ Die Kuh füttern“
Correct me if I'm wrong :-)
Nope. Animals in general "fressen", not only wild animals. Sometimes "essen" is used for pets (rather cats and dogs than cows, etc.). "Füttern" is a different thing, that's "to feed s.o."
I can't help but notice that dog and bear are masculine words but cow here? Yep. Feminine.
Cows are feminine, bulls are masculine.
Yeah, welcome to German, where (grammatical) genders are arbitrary :)
Not completely arbitrary. die Huhn, der Hahn. die Kuh, der Stier.
Even english speakers have a tendency to refer to a cat of unknown gender as "her" and a dog as "him".
But mostly. You gave the example yourself: it's das Huhn, not die :)