Translation:I eat the potato because I like potatoes!
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It's a bit annoying that I keep getting docked for spelling "potatos" in English when I am typing quickly. It's silly, but usually Duolingo picks up on small English errors. It's really my fault, bad spelling habit and all, but it would be great to be docked for actual German errors only.
Using for like that does sound a bit archaic in English, but it probably should be acceptable. I'm not surprised it wasn't added as an alternative translation, though, because I probably wouldn't have thought to include it, either.
Report it next time and see if they accept it.
I hate to be that guy but can the mods remove all these karma farming answers that add nothing to peoples understanding? Or add a filter that lets me sort the banter from the constructive discussion. I shouldn't have to scroll through half a page of jokes to find a comment discussing the translation.
On second thoughts: the basic meaning is the same but they feel slightly different.
Ich esse die Kartoffel, denn ich mag Kartoffeln feels to me more like an afterthought, a justification -- "I am eating the potato -- because, you know, I like potatoes." or perhaps "I am eating the potato; I like potatoes, after all".
Ich esse die Kartoffel, weil ich Kartoffeln mag is a more immediate justification: "I am eating the potato because I like potatoes." I wouldn't use a comma in that English sentence, because the "because" is integral to the meaning of the first part of the sentence.
denn is a coordinating conjunction (nebenordnende Konjunktion), not a subordinating conjunction (unterordnende Konjunktion) -- it joins two main clauses (Hauptsätze) together rather than joining a subordinate clause (Nebensatz) to a main clause (Hauptsatz).
Thus you need the verb second, as is the usualy rule in a main clause: ich mag Kartoffeln.