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Yup, that's just how it's pronounced in German. Thegodson is correct about w being pronounced as /v/ as well, although the s as /z/ is a bit more complicated. You might want to take a look at this page on Wikipedia for more info. All the symbols used for pronunciation are IPA symbols, which you can find out about here. (For the most part they're pretty straightforward, but some require some explanation, such as ʃ and many of the vowel symbols.)
They do not.
"Vogel" has /o/ which is similar to English "o" as in "boat" (but without the off-glide).
"Vögel" has /ø/ which is like a German /e/ but rounded. It's a sound that doesn't exist in English. It's a little bit similar to a non-rhotic pronunciation of "er" as in "fern" (for example, from someone in south-east England) but not quite the same.
You're half right. German o can either be:
- a "close-mid back rounded vowel" (IPA: [oː]); this is what is used in Vogel. This also appears in English in various guises too depending on the accent, and in Portuguese as the o in dois*. I'd describe the sound (in English) as long o (i.e. the "Oh, my God" sound).
- an "open-mid back rounded vowel" (IPA: [ɔ]), as in voll. In English this is the o in RP not or the ough in General American thought. In Portuguese this is the o sound in fofoca.* I'd describe the sound (in English) as short o.
However, ö can be either be:
- a "close-mid front rounded vowel" (IPA: [øː]), as in schön. According to Wikipedia, it is used by some European Portuguese speakers as the o in dou, and on São Miguel Island as the oi in boi, but not generally. It appears in some English dialects too, but also not generally.
- an "open-mid front rounded vowel" (IPA: [œ]), which is what is used in Vögel. This doesn't really appear in English outside of a few dialects and as far as I can tell doesn't appear in Portuguese at all.
Notice that the sounds for o are both "mid back rounded vowels" while the sounds for ö are "mid front rounded vowels". From what I can tell,* the Portuguese u is a close back rounded vowel (IPA: [u]) so is actually closer to German o. The closest I can come to a universal description of ö is that it's pretty close to the sound for disgust "eugh" (in English anyway).
The linked sound articles include audio samples for each sound, which you may find helpful.
* I don't know any Portuguese and am just going by Wikipedia
Plurals in German aren't that straightforward unfortunately. Many add -en or -n (particularly feminine nouns) and many (masculine or neuter nouns) have an umlaut applied, but many don't change at all, some add an -e or -er (with some of them also being umlauted) and some follow other patterns (there are some that add -s like in English for example). Feminine nouns are usually quite regular but masculine and neuter aren't and pretty much have to be learnt along with the word (like its gender). There are some rules of thumb but nothing particularly far-reaching.
See also: German grammar § Plurals on Wikipedia.
There are also some nouns based on adjectives which use a different system all together, but I wouldn't worry about those just yet. (They're pretty uncommon overall and are AFAIK completely regular, just different from other nouns.)
It's not feminine; it's plural.
The plural article is die for all genders -- or you could say that there is no gender distinction in the plural. (Or you could say that there are four genders: masculine, feminine, neuter, and plural.)
The feminine and plural definite articles are very similar; why this is I do not know. The one difference is that the dative is der for feminine singular but den for plural.