I thought so, too. Luckily, a little bit later in this lesson, I ran into a sentence that DID have "Ihr" in it and it had an even more obvious "Ear" sound to it.
I think you're exactly right about the "ear" and "pear" comparison. You'll be able to tell the difference in no time!
It's ambiguous, but most often would be understand as indicating national origin, regardless of any movement involved -- for example, I might say that "I come from Germany" even if I'm currently in Germany, but am identifying my origin on an international message board.
“to hail from” is a verb used in formal speech meaning “to come from” (said of a person). It's not often used in everyday speech.
Also, if I may, the auxiliary verb for questions and negations in English is “to do”, so your question would have been better phrased: “what does 'hails' mean?”.
In general, I'd say yes, but since it's a translation exercise meant to probe your knowledge of German, it's better to stick to literal translations of pronouns (although it is true that German has no gender neutral option, so, depending on the translator, ‘er’ could be translated with they in certain contexts).
I do not understand when should I use - He comes from Germany or He is from Germany. Fisrt, the because the meaning is the same and second because two questions ago I missed because was "Sie Kommt aus Deuschland" and Duolingo said that the correct answer was "She comes from England", when I answered the first one.
Conclusion - same sentence, only change the person and one is correct, one is wrong.