Is this for someone's origin? Or is this for someone's travel. For example, Karl is born in Los Angeles and he takes a trip to NYC. He has a layover in Chicago. Would he say that he is coming from Chicago? Could he say that he is coming from Chicago? Or is this expression for origin? Or is it for both? Help?
The verb forms for wir, sie, Sie are always the same.
And the rule is indeed for just about all verbs.
The two main exceptions are:
- -st will simplify to -t after an -s, -z, -ß, -x as in lesen: du liest; tanzen: du tanzt; heißen: du heißt; boxen: du boxt
- some verbs change their vowels in the du and er/sie/es forms, typically from e to i or ie or from a / au to ä / äu -- this is unpredictable and has to be learned on a case-by-case basis. For example, laufen has er läuft but kaufen has er kauft; geben has er gibt but leben has er lebt etc.
Pronounciation-wise, what's the difference beteeen er läuft and er kauft
For some reason, the German spellings eu and äu represent a sound similar to the English "oy" as in "boy".
While au sounds similar to English "ow" as in "now".
So er läuft sounds like "air loyft" while ihr lauft sounds like "ear lowft".
Essentially, do they rhyme?
Not at all.
It would have to be „Kommst du aus Chicago?”, with the subject and the verb inverted.
German is a V2 language, which means that the verb is always in the second position (which doesn't always mean the second word) except for in yes-no questions and other specific circumstances like dependent clauses. This means that her word order is generally stricter than English's.
You can definetly say "Du kommst aus Chicago?" as a question, it puts a higher emphasis on the "Du". Also "Aus Chicago kommst du?" would be possible, though unusual. Word order is usual less strict than english, do to the use of cases, which often compensate for placement in a sentence.
To everyone that doesn't understand German verbs.
An easy way to bend the verbs in the right form is thinking about the infinitive form of the verbs. In German it always (or at least nearly always) the infinitive verb form ends with a -en. Examples: kommen (to come), sein (to have), lieben (to love) and so on.
Now that we want to bend the verb kommen we need to first look at who is coming. Examples: I, you, he, she, they and so on. When we have the person for example you. We need to take away the -en of kommen, so now we have komm. Now that we have komm we need to think about what to add. When it's du (you) you always add an -st in the end. So komm + St is kommst. And this is how it works with all the different people you speak to, but the ending is different. I = an ending of -e, so that would be komme. He/she/it = an ending of -t. We = an ending of -en. You (plural form is ihr) = an ending of -t. They (sie) = an ending of -en. You (Sie with big S is what you call strangers) = an ending of -en. Now bare in mind that this is only for present verbs.
I hope this helped you understand the ways to bend verbs in German present.
Does German generally keep the spelling of foreign words (As long as they have the sounds and alphabet for it) the same?
German generally keeps the spelling of foreign proper nouns (personal names and place names) the same if they are spelled with the Latin alphabet.
Exception: some very famous and historically significant places will have their own German names -- much as in English we call the Italian city Roma "Rome", so in German it also has a German name: Rom.
But "New York", for example, is not Neujork in German, nor is "Chicago" Schikago.
As a matter of fact, if you pick up a 19th century book, you will find Germanized forms like Chikago or San Franzisko (or complete translations like Neuschottland for Nova Scotia). Most of these fell out of use and generally disappeared by the mid-to-late 20th century. The only one that really, really stuck and become naturalized is Kalifornien. To the best of my knowledge, a natural German conversation will never contain the form "California". I guess this fits nicely with Californian self-perception as almost a separate nation, as such loan-translated names are otherwise almost exclusively reserved for nations or at least larger entities: Australien, Neuseeland, Neuengland. I guess Neufundland breaks my theory because it is quite small (at least populationwise ;)) , but then was very significant economically very early on, so that stuck too.
I don't know of a specific place. But it's fairly simple. Perspective change=verb ending change
I=ich, add "e" You (singular)=du, add "st" He/she/it=er/sie/es, add "t"
We=wir, add "en" You (plural)=ihr, add "t" They=sie, add "en"
I wish they made verb endings and other grammar things a lesson early on.
This really helps.
To remember it, I've come up with a system that is a bit clumsy, but folks might find the key idea helpful, and adapt it, for each word ending, I link it (sort of think of it) in some way to English or French:
For Ich (e) - me (reminds me it ends with same letter) Ihr/Er/Sie/es (t) - 'tu' of French, meaning 'you' Wir/Sie (they) (en) - everyone, multiple people Du (st) - single 'tu'
I am testing out all levels consecutively and see the exact same set of questions. The very same happened with other lessons. Moreover, when I want to skip the level on android, it just shows a few questions 4-5 whereas on PC it is more than 10 questions. Does that happen to you as well? If that is the case, maybe developer team might consider testing out all levels of a lesson. I did not study for a few months and now I need to test out all levels individually. Duolingo keeps introducing new features like stories which is needless to say excellent but the real strength with the core lessons. If they cannot catch up, better to focus first on these issues.
Duolingo: Du kommst aus Chicago. = You are from Chicago. But the hints say that 'kommst= are coming'. So I put down, 'You are coming from Chicago' and its marked incorrect. Can anyone explain why or how it is wrong? (I realize there may be an answer somewhere below but there's like, 136 comments and I went thru about half looking for an answer and then gave up)
the hints say that 'kommst= are coming'
The hints are not sentence-specific. They're more like dictionary definitions, and for words with multiple meanings or uses you may find hints that are not appropriate for the current sentence.
For something that is happening right now, kommen can be translated as "be coming", e.g. Sieh mal! Tom kommt! (Look! Tom is coming!).
But for someone's origin, we use the present simple tense in English, since it's a (more or less) permanent truth: Tom kommt aus Chicago. "Tom comes from Chicago."
In general, du always has an -st ending: du trinkst, du kommst.
However, if the verb stem ends in a /s/ sound, you just write -t -- for example, du liest, du isst, du weißt, du boxt, du würzt instead of du *liesst/*ließt, du *issst, du *weißst, du *boxst, du *würzst. It's a pronunciation thing.
ihr always has the -t ending. (I think the only exception is ihr seid.)
Thus when the verb ends in a /s/ sound, the du, er, ihr forms can look the same, e.g. du löst, er löst, ihr löst.
When the verb changes its vowel in the du and er, sie, es forms, then du and er can look the same, but different from the ihr form, e.g. du liest, er liest; ihr lest.
kommst is only for the du form.
It's not used for ihr or Sie (though those are also translated as "you" in English).
du is used when you speak to one person whom you know well.
ihr for several people whom you know well.
Sie when speaking formally (to a person or to several people whom you do not know well).
I cannot complete the sentence because there are no words from which to select. This appears to be on a number of my categories and whilst I can skip the sentence I cannot complete that section (or level) because I cannot progress through that level. Is anyone else experiencing such obstacles?
Should be fine, I guess? I think it was established several times in this thread that "kommen" can mean "to be from" as well as "to have arrived from", and so in that second sense (you just stepped off the bus/train/flight from Chicago), that sounds perfectly accepable to me. What do the English native speakers think?
Well, strictly speaking, the German sentence is ambiguous. "Aus X kommen" is 'to be from' as well as 'to have arrived from'. Which meaning is intended should usually be clear from the context. Additionally, you could add temporal information like "Ich komme gerade aus Chicago", i.e. I've just arrived.
the correct answer.
This sentence has more than one accepted translation, so talking about "the" correct answer as if there is exactly wrong is not great.
The translation that's marked as "best" is "You are from Chicago" -- you may have received word tiles for that translation.
Isabelle, see my comments above. "You are coming from Chicago" most certainly isn't wrong... Duolingo has just not chosen to accept is as correct. Mapping English and German tenses onto each other 1:1 is notoriously deceiving (especially when aspect is concerned), and so in real world language use, there are many situations when "you are coming from Chicago" will indeed be the most natural, "most correct" version of the sentence. But cf. Mizinamo's answers above, Duolingo has chosen to rather narrowly interpret this sentence (no doubt for a very good reason, likely supposed to teach the use of tense and aspect in stative verbs). Unfortunately, this is counter-intuitive to many users, as can be seen from comments such as yours or mine. We will probably have to accept that.
It would be really helpful if you could provide a screenshot of something like that happening.
If it happens again, please take a screenshot, upload it to a website somewhere (e.g. imgur) and include the URL to the image in your comment.
Just from your description, it's impossible to say what might have happened.