Latin for Duolingo: Adjectives, Lesson 2
Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo! We are continuing adjectives with the 3rd declension forms this week. If you’re just joining us and want to catch up, here are the links you will need:
- Directory of Lessons
- Vocabulary List
- Memrise course
- Previous lesson: Adjectives 1
Adjectives of the 3rd declension are declined like nouns of the 3rd declension, with a few important exceptions. There is usually no distinction between masculine and feminine, so usually the dictionary listings are for m/f and neuter nominative. (Dictionaries will list m,f,n if there are 3 different forms, and in this case the stem comes from the nom. f. They will list nominative followed by genitive if there is only one nominative form). Third declension adjectives always have the i-stem in the genitive plural, and neuters have i-stems in the nominative and accusative plural. And the ablative singular ending is –i instead of –e. Formatting is difficult for me on Duo, but here's my attempt at a chart:
singular (m/f, n) | plural (m/f, n)
gravis, grave | graves, grav
gravis, gravis | grav
gravi, gravi | gravibus, gravibus
gravem, grave | graves, grav
i | gravibus, gravibus
Here is a good reference site for 3rd declension adjectives.
Another thing to remember about adjectives (of any type) is that sometimes they are used substantively, that is, taking the place of a noun. We do this in English (The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly) but not nearly as often as in Latin. It will frequently make a big difference if the adjective is m/f (omnes – everyone, all people) or n. (omnia = everything, all things).
Adjectives (3rd declension)
brevis, e = short
difficilis, e = difficult
dulcis, e = sweet
facilis, e = easy
felix, felicis (one form in nom. s.) = happy, lucky, fortunate
fortis, e = strong, brave
gravis, e = heavy, serious, severe
juvenis, e = young
omnis, e = every, all
senex, senis (one form in nom. s.)= old, aged; an old man or woman
similis, e = like, similar (used with gen. or dat. case to complete the meaning)
tristis, e = sad
Arca est gravis. = The box is heavy.
Marcus est brevis, sed Gaius est altus. = Marcus is short, but Gaius is tall.
Aranea est felix, sed musca est tristis. = The spider is happy, but the fly is sad.
Proelium est longum et difficile. = The battle is long and difficult.
Via est longa et difficilis. = The road is long and difficult.
Lucia in viā longā et difficili ambulat. = Lucia walks on the long and difficult road.
In gravi periculo sumus! = We are in serious danger!
Senex multos nepotes juvenes habet. = The old man has many young grandchildren.
Uxores nautarum felicium mulieres fortes sunt. = The wives of the happy sailors are strong women.
Omnia amo. = I like/ love everything.
Omnes amo. = I like/ love everyone.
Omnia sunt bona. = Everything is good (lit. All things are good).
Omnes in horto laborant. = Everyone is working in the garden (lit. All people are working in the garden).
Pueri juvenes tristes sunt quod dulciola non sunt dulcia. = The young boys are sad because the candies are not sweet.
Mater librum felicem pueris tristibus legit. = Mother reads a happy book to the sad boys.
Virtus militum fortium est magna. = The courage of the brave soldiers is great.
Filius est similis patris (patri). = The son is like the father.
Filii similes patrum (patribus) sunt. = Sons are like fathers.
Amici mei similes familiae sunt. = My friends are like a family.
Paula librum tristem legit. = Paula reads a sad book.
Discipuli libros de omnibus legunt. = The students read books about everything.
Schola non est facilis. = School is not easy.
Senes et juvenes librum bonum amant. = Old and young people love a good book.
Soror mea ovem juvenem in difficilibus montibus videt. = My sister sees a young sheep in the difficult mountains.
Post mortem tristem matris meae, pater meus uxorem novam habet. = After the sad death of my mother, my father has a new wife.
Amor omnia vincit. = Love conquers all.
Fortes fortuna juvat. = Fortune favors the brave.
Now that we have a wide variety of adjectives and nouns, I think the next lesson should be more systematic study of present tense verbs. If you have comments or questions please feel free to add them below, or contact me on my home stream. I will try to respond to them. I am really enjoying coming up with sentences and hope you are enjoying exploring Latin as well.