Yes, however if the fruit is mashed into a sauce consistency, in America it is called jam and in Germany Pure'e. People do, sometimes refer to jam as Marmelade but in my experiences they are usually referring to what Americans would call preserves (containing pieces of fruit within).
In the US, it's called marmalade if it has small pieces of fruit and rind, generally orange and perhaps lemon. Orange marmalade is the only one I commonly see. For fruit such as strawberry, which has no rind, we'd call it jam or preserves if it has pieces of fruit, and jelly if it's a smooth gel without chunks of anything.
In spoken German, everything is "Marmelade".
Technically speaking, one should differentiate between "Konfitüre" = jam and "Marmelade" = marmelade (the latter being from citrus fruits), and you will see those more precise words on jar labels etc., but you won't hear them much in everyday use.
Is it like juices where apple juice is apfelsaft
Apfelsaft (capital A; it's a noun)
so strawberry jam would be erdberremarmelade?
Yes; strawberry jam is Erdbeermarmelade.
In this case, the final -e of Beere gets dropped. Similarly with Himbeermarmelade "raspberry jam", Blaubeermarmelade "blueberry jam" etc., and also with Kirschmarmelade "cherry jam" from Kirsche "cherry".
But orange marmalade would be Orangenmarmelade with Orangen- as in Orangensaft, though the base noun is Orange "orange".
On the other hand, strawberry juice and cherry juice would be Erdbeersaft, Kirschsaft, so the combining forms are the same here, too.
I revisited this question again today and got the same "wrong answer" response. Here's what I sent in as a comment: This is not correct. Jam, as in strawberry jam is Erdbeere Pueree (literally, strawberry mash). Marmelade means either marmalade like "die Orangenmarmelade or (generically) means preserves like die Erdbeermarmelade. Hopefully this will be changed someday by Duolingo.
Here is where I get confused. There is this fruit named "marmelo" in Portuguese. So in Portuguese, "marmelada" is a specific jam/candy (can be harder or softer) made of "marmelo". Do people have this same concept in some part of Germany?
Portugiesisch marmelada (von marmelo, Quitte), Deutsch Quittenbrot (auch Quittenpaste, Quittenpästli, Quittenspeck oder Quittenkäse) Englisch: quince cheese dulce de membrillo oder carne de membrillo auf spanisch codonyat auf katalanisch.
Für die Süßigkeiten-Liebhaber: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dulce_de_membrillo