Tem = singular / Têm = plural
The verb agrees with the subject (mulher) btw.
What is the pronunciation difference? It seems hard to differentiate for a word as short as this.
Between "tem" and "têm"? None. But if you had to use "têm" the subject would be "as mulheres", so you would hear the difference.
ter is an irregular verb like ser. See http://www.tudobemportuguese.com/item/12356/en . Oh and poder: http://www.tudobemportuguese.com/item/12593/en and ir at http://www.tudobemportuguese.com/item/12529/en and pôr at http://www.tudobemportuguese.com/item/31287/en .
You just got to memorize the irregulars. :/
What is the difference between the construction of this sentence and "The woman's boots?"
Can bota also talk about the kind of boot that might be used if a cast is not used (I hope I got my facts straight enough to get the point across. I've never broken any bones so I wouldn't know)?
"the lady" is more like "a senhora", it adds a level of formality/respect
Why "has" instead of "have"? Why not "The woman have boots"? Observation: I'm brazilian.
"has" is the conjugation for the 3rd person singular.
I have - you have - he/she/it has - we have - they have
"The woman have" is like saying "A mulher têm" - it's the wrong conjugation.
No, "had" is the past tense. "has" is the present tense for the 3rd person singular.
Não, "had" é tempo passado. "has" é tempo presente para a 3a pessoa do singular.