"Tu manges du riz."

Translation:You are eating rice.

January 6, 2013

149 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/shadbags

Why is salade not correct? On mobile it was pick the missing word and i couldnt pick between riz and salade

March 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

because "salade" is feminine, so it would have been "de la" (and not "du" which is masculine).

March 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/camcaj

thank you! ive been stuck on these types of questions for a while

June 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/vicky_0563

I have a question. seen that feminine should be ''de la'',why for masculine it's not ''du le''?

July 22, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

"du" is the contraction of de+le.

July 22, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/faizetto

thank you

April 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Woodzy17

You're a genius.

November 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/GraceMontenegro

good information.... muito obrigada!

March 2, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Jubek_Phillip

Merci beaucoupe <3

June 5, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/urielha1

Thanks!

March 30, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/MissAshley3

Thank you. That really helps.

November 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/JadeP9

Thank you

December 29, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/EmeraldDS

Thank you! This was so helpful.

December 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/NessieH04

thank you, now this makes sense

October 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/WallaceBell6

Oh! I didn't know that there was a feminine form of "du!" Much Thanks!

March 14, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Sharvari419697

Thank u

April 23, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Eneszgen1

Eyv

May 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/sabrinagutz

So is l'eau and l'alcohol femenine too?

April 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

l'eau is feminine: une eau

l'alcool is masculine: un alcool

Hence the interest of learning new nouns with their indefinite article.

April 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/GraceMontenegro

it is posible to say? UNE EAU ??? isnt sound quite weird??? please could you answer and again thank you

March 2, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/faizetto

no, it's not at all. it sound's like "an-eu" "aneu". eu sounds like the "eu" in bleu. correct me if i'm wrong, because i'm still learning too :)

April 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/g.v.tjongahung

I think you are correct. Water is uncountable so you can't say 'a' water, but rather 'some' water.

June 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Ripersyah

We can say "A COFFEE" in french though, at least in this App.. it implies "A (CUP OF) COFFEE)...

May 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/justamapleleaf

Doesn't "de la" mean "about"?

July 2, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/MenaandRor

This really really helped. Thanks!!

July 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/TuhinaAnoop

Merci!

July 17, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/CherylRitc1

Merci!

August 12, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Keira_French

But it says you, it doesn't define with is masculine or feminine. I can't decide which is feminine and which words are masculine.

November 16, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

This is kinda super late and may not help you anymore, but because du is de+le, and "le" is masculine, you find the masculine noun to complete the sentence. Salade is feminine, and alcool would be something you would drink, not eat. Therefore "riz" would be the correct answer.

Here's a quick table thing to help you understand this a little better (hopefully)

de+la=de la de+le=du de+les-des

Hope that clears stuff up. :)

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Margo.Morr

Thank you!! I find this fairly confusing.

November 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/NatalieBoa3

It helps to know when to use de la as I don't have a PC for the lessons. Thanks.

November 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Ripersyah

You could also open Duolingo on your Mobile Phone's browser.. and there are tips and notes before you take the lesson.

I open my Duo with my mobile browser sometimes.. just to see the tips and notes haha

May 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/pamhsiehca

Oh! Thanks!

April 18, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/pye20

· The Partitive Article | du Masc | de la Fem | · · https://www.duolingo.com/skill/fr/Food-1/tips-and-notes

October 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/POPPY18448

Yes i agree

June 6, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/u83rmensch

having a clear voice that does not sound like a robot would make this awesome. that being said. im not gonna complain too much see as this is all free.

January 6, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

You are right, better complain only once, because when you have made progress down the tree, you will have multiple occasions to complain about the robot voice and that would be very repetitive for other learners (having already complained hundreds of times).

January 6, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/mhiraishi

Sitesurf you are awesome

January 9, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Suggs

Dang, i thought it said "Je mange du riz".

January 16, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/dorismvinagre

I have a similar problem...every time the voice say Tu I understand Je... :-/

January 20, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

And when you say TU then JE, successively, does it sound the same?

January 20, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/jaman4dbz

nope, but I could see the potential confusion. Although I'm loving this site so far, I think one weakness of duolingo is the lack of enunciation in the voice of the speaker.

If I try, I can REALLY enunciate words in english and make it very clear how to say them, I feel that emphasis is lacking here.

Still, I understand most words, so it's good enough ;)

April 3, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/orlando171094

how do i know when to use 's' or 'z' at the end

November 25, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

"tu manges" - "vous mangez"

je mange, tu manges, il/elle/on mange, nous mangeons, vous mangez, ils/elles mangent

November 25, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/noredinfakhri

Thans so

June 2, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/jackwmcc

the sound recording could be clearer

January 30, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Lady_Black07

When do i know when things use Du?

May 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Estarbookit

If it's masculine it would be "de le" which is used as "du"

June 30, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BIANCAKRU

This feminine and masculine for food has got me stumped haha

October 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/t3rr13

I'm reallt not understanding what words are feminine or masculine.

May 15, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Prodesso

Most nouns that are feminine gender usually end in 'e', however there are exceptions so their gender must be learnt

June 29, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Jessica684709

There is no way of knowing; you just have to memorize each noun with its article (that said, English words (like "le weekend") are always masculine.

April 30, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/lauraherrera22

What does "du" mean? I don't understand when do i use it

October 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Here's the Tips Notes from this skill (Food). I suggest, if you access Duolingo through the mobile app, to check the skill you are doing on your mobile browser to see these. You could see this one here.

The Partitive Article

The partitive article is used for unspecified amounts of uncountable nouns. In English, it can translate to "some", but it's often just omitted. Remember that du is a contraction of de + le and that partitives can elide.

| Gender | Partitive Article | Example |
| Masculine | du | Je mange du poisson. — I am eating fish. |
| Feminine | de la | Je mange de la viande. — I am eating meat. |
| Elided Masc. | de l' | Je mange de l'ananas. — I am eating pineapple. |
| Elided Fem. | de l' | Je bois de l'eau. — I am drinking water. |

Nouns almost never appear without articles in French, so articles must be repeated in serial lists.

  • Il cuisine du poisson et de la viande — He cooks fish and meat.

Count Noun, Mass Noun, or Both?

Count nouns are discrete and can be counted, like un livre ("a book"). They can be modified by definite and indefinite articles, but not partitive articles.

  • Je lis un livre. — I am reading a book.
  • Nous avons les livres. — We have the books.

Mass nouns like lait ("milk") are uncountable, and they can be modified by definite and partitive articles, but not indefinite articles.

  • Je bois du lait. — I am drinking [some] milk.
  • Je bois le lait. — I am drinking the milk.

However, many nouns can behave as both count nouns and mass nouns. This is true for most edible things. For instance, consider poisson ("fish") or vin ("wine"):

  • Count noun: Le poisson est rouge. — The fish is red.
  • Mass noun: Je mange du poisson. — I eat [some] fish.
  • Count noun: Le vin est blanc. — The wine is white.
  • Mass noun: Je bois du vin rouge ou blanc. — I drink red or white wine.

Note that some mass nouns can be pluralized in English when they refer to multiple types of the noun, but this usage isn't found in French. For instance, "the fishes" refers to multiple species of fish, while les poissons just refers to multiple fish.

Omitted Articles

When an article is missing in an English sentence, it must be added to the French translation. The definite article can be used to fill this void in three situations:

  1. Almost anywhere one would use "the" in English (i.e. when referring to specific things).
  2. Before the subject of a sentence to state general truths about it.
  3. Before the direct object of a verb of appreciation (like aimer) to express like/dislike.

If any of the above is true, then use the definite article. Otherwise, use the indefinite or partitive, depending on whether or not the noun is countable.

  • I like wine, but I am drinking milk. — J'aime le vin, mais je bois du lait.

Both articles are missing in the English version of this example. Aimer expresses fondness for wine, so le vin should be used there. However, boire is not a verb of appreciation, so the partitive du should be used on the uncountable lait.

  • Cats are animals. — Les chats sont des animaux.

This is a general truth about cats, but #2 above can only apply to subjects, so only chats takes a definite article here. Animaux are countable, so use the plural indefinite des.

  • He likes to eat meat. — Il aime manger de la viande.

This is a tricky example because the meat is the direct object of manger, not aimer. Thus, #3 does not apply and viande cannot take a definite article.

Also, the French definite article can be ambiguous when translating from French to English. It can often refer to both a specific noun and the general sense of a noun.

  • Les chats sont des animaux. — Cats are animals. / The cats are animals.

De + Definite Article

De plus a definite article can also have other meanings. De means "of" or "from", so this can also indicate possession or association with a definite noun.

  • La copie du livre. — The copy of the book.
  • Les copies des livres. — The copies of the books.
  • L'enfant de la femme. — The woman's child.
October 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/RainerParu

Thank you for this good comment- is very helpfull

November 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Mikkay77

I am struggling with the difference in pronunciation of mange and manges, the s seems silent- and they sound the same- but then again, a lot of theses sound the same to me!

January 7, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

I confirm that the "s" is silent.

January 7, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Nursyafiah

What's the difference between tu and vous?

April 7, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Rainier15

"Tu" is used when you talk to someone you know, like friends. "Vous" is used when you talk to strangers, or when you're meeting with someone important. You're supposed to use vous when you don't know.

February 26, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/krazykriola

Why does du not apply to the other words and only rice.doesn't du mean some

April 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

"du" applies to every masculine singular noun starting with a consonant.

  • du pain, du vin, du boeuf, du beurre, du bonheur, du pouvoir, etc.
April 15, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ag23642

du is masculine, and salade is feminine. And also you don't eat alcohol.

February 20, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/BilliciaPellum

how do i know if "you are eating rice" and not a salad?

September 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

You are supposed to have learned that salad = une salade, feminine.

Now, if you also know that rice = un riz, masculine, you have the key:

  • de la salade is feminine
  • du riz is masculine
September 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/PradyuthPa

How to understand which is feminine and which is masculine ??

March 13, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/MadameTaunte

"alcool" is a masculine form so -d'- would be most appropriate for it since it is a word starting with a vowel, a -d'- is most appropriate. If "du" it were feminine, it would be "de la" for salade, but the sentence says "du", so the correct option is riz.

April 10, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/HenryHusky

Is there an official way to identify whether a word is feminine or not? These types of questions are really starting to trip me up because I dont know where "de la" is used instead of "du" and vice versa. Do I just have to memerize the masculine from the feminine? Somebody help me. I need it.

August 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/gayobrienh

Yes, memorize

February 14, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Theapanyan

Hi, how come I can't say " du salad/ du alcool" ?

June 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

salade is feminine: une salade, la salade, de la salade

alcool is masculine and starts with a vowel sound: un alcool, l'alcool, de l'alcool

June 28, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Theapanyan

I see. And I also looked at your other comments. They are very helpful. Thanks a lot :)

June 29, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/vicky_0563

so is that means the word ''de'' is not only for feminine?And if the word start with a vowel may be like ''de l'oignon'' or ''de l'ean'' is that right? By the way,why isn't it be like ''du l'alcool''?

July 22, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/thazrail

does it have to do with the countable and uncountable categories as well ? what exactly can i use for alcohol articles all together ?

December 15, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/JessUganiz

Salade and riz are both foods... So why was I marked incorrect when I chose salade?

July 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

de la salade = salade is feminine

du riz = riz is masculine

July 7, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Mercrist_089

Y can't I pick salade as well???

September 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

Because "salade" is feminine and the article would be "de la".

September 2, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Mercrist_089

Ohhhhhhhhh..... I see....

September 3, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Saeblundr

"Tu manges du salade" is not valid? I realise now that "riz" is the new word that is being tested for, but...

October 12, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

The answer is already available 4 times on this thread.

October 13, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/TheHexicle

Savage.

August 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Saeblundr

for some reason on my phone they were not showing, on my laptop now i see them. Thank you for all your input, i frequently read your responses to people, always enlightening :)

October 14, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/ginarusty

i believe that i also say "je mange le salade"

November 6, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Then you say it wrong. It's "je mange la salade" or "je mande de la salade". Because salade is feminine.

December 4, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/MysteryGirl12

How are you supposed to know witch one to pick if you can eat both RICE AND SALAD I picked salad and got it wrong

December 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Sitesurf

You are supposed to have already come across "le/un/du riz", masculine and "la/une/de la salade", feminine.

Therefore, if you are proposed "du"..., you have to understand that the only word fitting in will be masculine.

December 21, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/senazdoan

Why is salade not correct?

January 3, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Une / de la salade; un / du riz.

February 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/GloriaSong1

but why not alcohol?

January 13, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Because it starts with a vowel, so you'd use de l' in front of it, not du.

January 13, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/GloriaSong1

ohhhh yeah! thank you so much

January 14, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/ezanaz1

I hate rice

March 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/julianaadrien

we might spell some things wrong doesn't mean we are wrong!

March 23, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/emilykk93

how come "salade" isn't correct? it should be

May 14, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Gender.

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/krane13

'Du', Is this specific to use with food or can be used in other contexts. Eg.: 'Je lisent du livre'. Is it right? Also, if anyone explains in what ways can 'du' be used? Omlette du fromage = cheese omelette So by going by this, will sandwich du fromage translates to sandwich cheese, but I want to convey cheese sandwich.

June 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

First, despite its widespread popularity amongst English speakers, omelette du fromage is very wrong in French. The right way to say it is omelette au fromage.

Second, partitive articles (du, de la, de l' and des) can be used with anything, but only if they are uncountable or treated in an uncountable way, like water, sand, iron, wind, etc.

Du is a contraction of de and le, like au, which is a contraction of à and le.

June 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/hannahcgomes

why is it not alcool

October 30, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

Because it starts with a vowel, so the correct partitive article to use is de l' : de l'alcool.

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Polka-Polyglot

How do you tell if a word is feminine or masculine?

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/BastouXII

There is no simple, straightforward way to tell, just by looking at the word (like its spelling or last syllable). There are a few patterns, but the most precise of them is only good less than 80% of the time, so I wouldn't bother spending time to memorize them.

Just like English spelling, if you don't learn them while you learn the word, you can check in a dictionary, it will always be indicated (usually by a small m. or f., sometimes n m/n f : "noun, masculine"; "noun, feminine").

November 2, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/faezeh759246

Why my dictionary translate "de la" to "of the" shouldnt it translate to "some" ???

November 10, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

Either translation is correct! de/du can mean some, but in some phrases or sentences, such as "le livre de Sam," it means the book of sam, showing possesion. It's kind of confusing, but both translations are correct.

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Noody.13

why not salade

November 25, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

Salade is a feminine word. The question is tu manges du ____. Du=de+le, which means that the answer would have to be feminine, because le is the masculine word for the. Salade is feminine, and so you wouldn't be able to apply it in this context. Here's a quick table to help you out in the future. de la=de+la de le=de+le de+les= des

Hope that clears some stuff up. :)

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Mahamed_Abdi

Ahhh finally i get the meaning of these questions!

December 21, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/macaroni8

Why do we have to put du in front of riz? I understand that de means of and du is de + le but wouldn't that sentence be "You are eating of the rice".

January 1, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

de/du can have two meanings. One, like you mentioned, is showing possession. For example, "le livre de Sam" would be translated as "the book of Sam." However, de/du can also mean "some" or "any." So in this context, where it says "Tu manges du riz" it's actually saying "you eat some rice" rather than "you eat of the rice."

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/hiyabaraya0

Sitesurf i like how you are positive

January 3, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Kiara668578

Hey! I just realized i can move the correct box up and down! Interesting...

January 5, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/morrisono21

I am Sexually addicted to Roblox so this is a soooo sexist

January 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/ANUP352363

this not good

January 30, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/kittyfeathers

i dont undertsand why salade doesnt count

February 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

Salade is a feminine word. The question is tu manges du ____. Du=de+le, which means that the answer would have to be feminine, because le is the masculine word for the. Salade is feminine, and so you wouldn't be able to apply it in this context. Here's a quick table to help you out in the future. de la=de+la de le=de+le de+les= des

Hope that clears some stuff up. :)

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Adeleke5140

Is there any contraction of "de la"

February 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

No. In their simplest correct forms, De+le=du, de+la=de la, and de+les=des.

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/abdullahd180

In this case how do you know which one is right?

February 23, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

Du is de+le. Le is a masculine article, meaning that the noun that comes after it must also be masculine. Salade is feminine, which eliminates that answer. And if you "manges" something, it means you eat it. You can't eat alcool, so the only possible answer is riz. Riz also happens to be food, and a "masculine" word.

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Run4it2014

I am an English speaker and this is my first attempt at a foreign language. Are there any hints at remembering the gender of objects? I seem to always get it wrong.

March 7, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

It's really hard to learn at first, but after learning French for a while your brain will put the pieces together for you, and you'll have them memorized. Oftentimes, nouns or adjectives that end in "e" are feminine, but that is not always the case. It'll come with time...good luck?

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/I_the_guy69

you guys sound really cool

March 8, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/basilio95

What is riz?

March 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

Rice.

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/glo0505

also choose the words that are in that lesson.

March 11, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Taisha.anyai

Follow Ig @Taisha.aleah

March 17, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/jeanneann41

Thank you....never really knew why "du" was used sometimes.

March 19, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Amoromnis

Why doesn't "alcool" work? Is it because it's femanine? (it doesn't appear to be femanine. Unless its just one of those words you need to remember is femanine) Or is it not accepted because you can't say "du alcool"? Like how you dont say "le alcool" but instead you say "l'alcool"

March 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

"tu manges" means "you eat." You can't really eat alcool, so...yeah. Riz is the right answer.

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/eric982242

Im starting to see how this works. Yhe trick is noticing of the leading words or for mascline or femenin

March 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/2019170

Hey guys, my name is Marie-Perle and I have created a club! If you would like to join, the code is CBFJQT. It will be nice to meet you

March 27, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/avernanda

what's the difference between de , du, le , la? Someone please explain me

April 22, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Lily921105

De and Du both can mean having possession, or some/any. le and la both mean the. Le is masculine, la is feminine.

de la=de+la du=de+le

November 12, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/acharya2

वो सलाद नहीं खायेगा क्या? खाली रिज़ या चावल खा कर पेट भरेगा? हैं....?

June 3, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/FernandoOlvera

You eat a salad, it should be marked correct. I agree you eat rice but also you eat salad. You cant drink it.

June 15, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/monalisa170801

Why will the answer not be alcool?

June 16, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Zeynep386223

shadbags yeah

June 18, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/LouisFrenc3

Thanks

June 21, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/LouiseEcho1

It could be either salad or rice. How could it be wrong?

June 23, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/avazquez02

Why is salad wrong?!

July 25, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/Duo12341

Why it can t be salade? Tu mangez du salade, tu mangez du riz?

September 17, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/JasonLapi3

What does du mean? Why is it necessary?

November 8, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/AdamOConno637919

Tu mange du riz, is it.. you eat some rice?

November 9, 2017

https://www.duolingo.com/khiawilliams

WOW!!!! are they eating it raw or cooked? I'M SO CONFUSED

January 31, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/sophia0571

Hello

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/sophia0571

Oh god I can't see my comment

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Jane918134

If the sentence reads, Tu manges du .??. And salade is feminine and it would be 'de la' and du is the contraction of 'de le' what is the contraction for 'de la' ??

April 7, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Wanda655505

What is wrong with Your Eat RICE. And excuse me, i do not have time to read the whole thread.

May 30, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Trix1972

Thanks

October 13, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/marnie459467

What is the rule here? It is not been made clear.

February 6, 2019
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