It's actually a phrase from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_to_work
I don't know much about the history of the concept, but situations it covers perhaps include: discrimination (where people want to work, but are denied), and situations where there is large-scale unemployment and a government is doing nothing to create the conditions where people are able to earn a living.
what is the difference between"arbeid" and "jobben" in how it's used? In English we have both "work" and "job," but here it seems to be used differently, as in English we wouldn't say "Everyone has a right to job." In English job is always a noun, but in Norwegian am I correct in thinking that "jobb" eller "jobben" can be a noun or a verb? Takk!