Are you asking if it is possible to invert the two objects in the German sentence? In this case it’s not possible because an accusative with an indefinite article is always behind the dative. So „Sie gibt eine Orange einem Mann.“ is not correct German.
Speaking of full objects (not objects in the form of pronouns) you can take as a rule of thumb (regla de oro): Dativ vor Akkusativ.
It comes down to emphasis. If you were just making a general statement you would probably just say "Sie gibt einem Mann eine Orange," but if you wanted to emphasize that it's an orange that she's giving him (as opposed to an apple, a gun, or whatever) you would but 'eine Orange' before 'einem Mann". You could even write it, "Eine Orange gibt sie einem Mann." While technically, that could mean that the orange is giving her to the man (since 'sie' is used in both the nominative and the accusative), through the context of the sentence you would be able to determine what is meant.
Sometimes the position of the objects can be changed, but always respecting the rules. One rule is: An accusative object with an indefinite article is always behind the dative. “Sie (nominative) gibt dem Mann (dative masculine) eine Orange (accusative with an indefinite article)." = She gives an orange TO the man.
If you change the places then it will be against the rule but thanks to “dem Mann” the sentence can be understood even though it sounds very strange.
Exactly the same happens when you replace “dem Mann" (dative masculine) for “dem Kind" (dative neuter). Again against the rule but can be understood.
But what happens if you replace “dem Mann” for a feminine dative? “Sie gibt der Frau (dative feminine) eine Orange." = She gives an orange TO the woman.
Changing the objects would be “Sie gibt eine Orange der Frau (genitive feminine)" = She gives an orange OF the woman.
The result of this change: The former dative object “der Frau” has now changed to be the genitive object “der Frau” because of its position in the sentence. The dative object is missing, and the whole thing isn’t understandable any more.
A general rule has to work for the three genders and here this is not the case, when the position of the objects is changed. So the only way to have a correct sentence is following the rule: Dativ vor Akkusativ, first dative and then accusative.
How then emphasize an object?
1.- By writing it at the beginning of the sentence. You won’t find this kind of structure very often because it sounds too elaborated and heavy. But notice that in this case subject and verb change their positions as well:
"Eine Orange gibt sie dem Mann." "Eine Orange gibt sie der Frau."
2.- By writing the emphasized object in italic (kursiv). (not in DL!?!)
I found links about some rules. Even though it’s in German, it’s not very difficult to understand: http://www.deutschegrammatik20.de/wortposition/wortposition-dativ-akkusativ/
This one is tougher, but more complete, with charts which could be helpful: http://www.deutschakademie.de/online-deutschkurs/dativ-akkusativ-erklaerung
Okay, I understand that dative case is for indirect objects: in this sentence, the man is the INdirect object, because the orange is given to him, and the orange is the direct object, because it is the thing being given.
My question is: is there any "rule" or "pattern" for dative articles? Is it ALWAYS "einer" for "die" words and "einem" for "der" words?
We had to memorize a chart in my second semester of German, which taught me nothing. I cannot learn by rote memorization. I hope DuoLingo's more "organic" learning process will help me with Dative case, so it's no longer something I dread.
You can if you do this on a regular basis, but would someone really give an orange to any man that comes along on a regular basis. I mean if it were the same man you would use "dem Mann" since you would know which man you were thinking of after a bit. What was your complete sentence?
The dative case is used for the indirect object in a sentence. A direct object receives the action of a verb while the indirect object receives the object itself.
Here, someone is giving an orange to a man. The thing being given is an orange, rather than a man, so the orange is the direct object (accusative case). The man receives the orange, so "man" is the indirect object.
In English, we either say (e.g.) "give a man an orange" (the word order implicitly shows which is the indirect and direct object) or "give an orange to a man" (the "to" marks the indirect object - here, "a man").
In German, the ending of the article (i.e. a/an/the) indicates the direct and indirect object, so that we never confuse giving a man an orange with giving an orange a man!
Give me a lingot!
A man gives a woman an apple. (ein mann gebt einer frau einen Apfel.) A woman gives a man an apple (eine Faru gebt einem mann einen Apfel) A woman gives a man an orange (Eine frau gebt einem mann eine Orange.) The man gives the woman the apple Der mann gebt der frau den Apfel.
The woman gives the man the apple- Die Frau gebt dem mann den Apfel.
The women give the men the apples - Die Frauen geben den Mannern Die Apfel.
Umlat changes ignored*
If you have difficulty with understanding these sentences, make a comment, I will come back and explain.
"Der Männern" doesn't exist. The -n only gets tagged on for the dative plural of "Mann":
nom: der Mann - die Männer (who?)
gen: des Mann(e)s - der Männer (whose?)
dat: dem Mann(e) - den Männern (to whom?)
acc: den Mann - die Männer (whom?)
"Geben" always requires the dative, as you're giving something to someone (Lat. "dare" = "to give", so actually, "geben" isn't only a simple verb that is used with the dative, it's the verb that's responsible for the name of the whole case).
The articles don't only change by case, but also for gender and plural, so while MetaCentrik's sentence "der Mann gibt der Frau den Apfel" is correct (except for "gebt" which should be "gibt"), it will change in other combinations:
masculine (der Mann):
"die Frau gibt dem Mann einen Apfel"
"die Frau gibt den Männern..."
feminine (die Frau):
"der Mann gibt der Frau..."
"der Mann gibt den Frauen..."
neuter (das Kind):
"die Frau gibt dem Kind..."
"die Frau gibt den Kindern..."
So as you can see, "der" is actually the outlier in what is otherwise (sg) "dem" - (pl) "den" for the dative :)
Duolingo is correct. "Orange" is not a German, but a French word and we adopted it with the French pronunciation, the “g” like a soft English “j”. The old/first German word for this fruit is or was “die Apfelsine”. Maybe “die Apfelsine” is still used in North Germany, but in South Germany and in Switzerland this word is not known at all.
Translates to "She is giving a man an orange" or "She gives a man an orange" (which since German doesn't have a present continuous tense the latter is more literal).
Dissecting the sentence helps:
Sie/she = subject = nominative
Orange/orange = object = accusative
Mann/man = indirect object = dative
Gibt/give = verb
Einem/a = dative article belongs to dative noun
Eine/a = accusative article belongs to accusative noun
Also, dative case answers the question "to whom?" or "from whom?"
He gives her the book. To whom does he give the book? To her.
He buys me flowers. For whom does he buy the flowers? For me.
Phew! I'm not the only one. I reached 19% and started getting quiet disheartened at the amount of research I was having to do, until I finally opened duolingo on my laptop to discover a wealth of tips and notes. I might have had a musical hallucination but I swear I heard a fanfare erupt in the room. Good luck Paula.
When the indirect object (recipient) comes second, you need "to".
If you leave out "to", then the first noun phrase (an orange) would be interpreted as the recipient and the second one (a man) as the direct object, the thing which is given. It would mean that you give a man to an orange.
"she gives a man an orange" is correct and is one of the accepted translations.
If you type that and it gets marked wrong, can you create a screenshot and upload it somewhere, then link to it here, please?
(First check, though, that you are being asked to translate into English and that it's not a "type what you hear" exercise where you have to type in German what you heard in German.)
Because "einem" ends in
m and Mann begins with
m, the male voice speaking this sentence sounds like it is saying "eine Mann". Is this just a poorly-enunciated example, or is it typical (because enunciating both
m sounds feels unnatural)?
Spanish will do something like this, for example "una amiga" sounds like "un amiga", so I would not be surprised to see other languages do this.
Absolutely, I'm not a native sleaker but watching a lot of German TV and listening to German music (both of which I recommend) i started noticing that Germans can sometimes blur their words together- especially in cases like this. If you want to get used to how native speakers say these phrases, appart from normal exposure, I'd also recommend the app 'Memrise' since it has a feature which allows you to watch video clips of locals saying vocab words and phrases. The app goes great with Duolingo and I use both quite a bit.
Word endings of pronouns and nouns and articles do depend on gender and number (masculine, neuter, feminine or plural), as well as case (Nominative, Accusative, Dative or Genitive). Cases are explained at the following link and there is a table for the indefinite article "ein" and its forms, as well as tables for the definite articles and personal pronouns, if you just keep scrolling down, and I recommend that you read it all. https://www.thoughtco.com/the-four-german-noun-cases-4064290
Please delete your two comments above this one as they are basically the same.
Sie gibt einem Mann einer Orange!!! Is it correct ?
No, it is not correct.
You have two objects in the dative case and none in the accusative case.
It's like "She is giving to a man to an orange."
Instead, you need one object in the dative case (the recipient) and one in the accusative case (the thing which is given).
Warum wir Schreiben "einem? Und nicht einen für der Mann?
The man is the recipient of the giving -- the indirect object of the verb. So it stands in the dative case.
Thus we need masculine dative einem here, not masculine accusative einen.
The direct object is the thing which is being given -- here, the orange. Thus we have feminine accusative eine Orange.
i wrote She is giving an orange a man […] duo didnt accept it why?
Because that means that you are taking a man and giving him to an orange.
But the German sentence Sie gibt einem Mann eine Orange. says that you are taking an orange and giving it to a man.
The meanings are quite different -- you have switched the recipient and the gift.
i read the tip it said i should translate and write like this in english :She is giving an orange 'to' a man
That is indeed a correct translation.
Another possible translation is: She is giving a man an orange.
I think this is correct English, as a native speaker (college freshman English)
The only thing I would add, is that you would need a comma-
She gives, to a man, an orange.
And yes it seems a little bit pretentious. I imagine it would sound even more so out loud or poetic maybe.
But they seem to accept all other things with no punctuation so..
dictionary hints suggest she gives an man an orange. Use of an before a word is for words beginning with a vowel
The hints are per word not per sentence and are for all sentences. When I click on "einem" at the top of this page before "Mann" using the web version of Duolingo, I get this page. https://www.duolingo.com/dictionary/German/einem/70c9196231179c9a9b0fc6ab2bb550e3
When I click on "eine" in front of "Orange", I get this page, so this seems to work a bit better. https://www.duolingo.com/dictionary/German/eine/1efa36dd929a856a46828fe3872566eb
einem man - the dictionary hints auggest an man!! Incorrect as an is used before words beginning with a vowel. Do you not know this???????