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Monday = "Segunda-feira" or "Segunda"
Tuesday = "Terça-feira" or "Terça"
Wedsnesday = "Quarta-feira" or "quarta".
Thursday = "Quinta-feira" or "Quinta".
Friday = "Sexta-feira" or "Sexta"
Saturday = we speak only "Sábado"
Sunday = We speak only "Domingo"
Speaking in slang that is, informal words is: Saturday = "Sabadão" Sunday = "Domingão".
I am a native Portuguese speaker and I can help you.
That is right. Two years ago I didn't know that the calendars were different in Europe than in the USA. I bet business is the reason that the calendars start with Monday on many European calendars. Calendars are so essential in an office. If we go back to the Bible, the Sabbath or Saturday was the last day of the week. It must make planning a weekend trip easier to look at on the calendar for those countries that put Saturday and Sunday together.
I can't help noticing this equivalence (5 out of 7) with the Greek words for the days of the week... Yes, deriving from the Bible, as allintolearning wrote, we too say Κυριακή, Δευτέρα, Τρίτη, Τετάρτη, Πέμπτη, Παρασκευή, Σαββάτο (which respectivley mean Day of the Lord, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Preparation (the necessities for the day after, that is Saturday), Sabbath). Nevertheless, nowadays everybody regards Monday (Δευτέρα - Deftera) as the first day of the week, as of course the working days demand!
In the right context, we do say 'I see you on Monday'. For instance, a person thinks they have an appointment with someone. They think it's today. They go in or call ahead. The person answers, 'no, your appointment isn't for today; I see you on Monday'.
With absolutely no context whatsoever, 'I see you on Monday' sounds strange and wrong to English speakers. Out of context, it sounds very much like 'goodbye until Monday' and with that meaning, the grammar is wrong. The most common use of such a sentence would be 'I will see you on Monday' or 'See you on Monday' as a way of saying goodbye, knowing you will meet again on Monday.
We do often use the present tense to talk about future actions (or even past actions, when we're telling a story) but there are a few instances where the future tense has to be used. stating intentions (but not appointments) is one of those times. as a form of goodbye, you can say 'I will see you on Monday', or you can drop the 'I will' and just say 'see you on Monday'. You can't say 'I see you on Monday' in that context without it being an appointment.
"I see you on Monday" is not grammatically correct unless if the sentence was in continuous tense like "i see you on mondays" But since it's in a context of a one time event to happen in future then a future tense should be added after the pronoun. Thus, "i will see you on Monday"
I'm not too familiar with how to use "tu", but I think it would be "vejo te". Anyway, "tu" is familiar in Portugal, but in Brazil "você" is both familiar and formal in most states, but not all. Kind of complex. But I've asked a number of Brazilians and people from Portugal about this, and according to them it doesn't really matter which one you use because of the complexity.
Thanks for your reply. You're right, it does seem complex. I'm more used to French, where 'tu' tends to be used for children and close friends, whereas my Portuguese friends (Portugal, not Brazil) indicate that 'tu' is much more commonly used in Portugal and 'voce' is regarded as stuffy and formal. I'm therefore trying to pay at least as much attention to 'tu' as I am to 'voce'.
ThanKwee is right, one way to say that is "Vejo te ...", but it should be written "Vejo-te ..." (with a hyphen). Brazilians prefer to place objects before the verb so you might hear "Te vejo ..." in Brazil despite the fact that there is a grammatical rule that says sentences should not start with an object pronoun ("Eu te vejo ..." is strictly correct though).