Latin for Duolingo: Present Tense Verbs, Lesson 2
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Last week we studied 1st conjugation verbs, which have the letter A in the present tense conjugation and are marked by the –are ending of the infinitive (2nd principal part). This week we’ll look at verbs from the 2nd conjugation. These verbs are characterized by the letter
E in the 1st and 2nd principal parts. The 2nd principal part, the infinitive, contains an ē (with a macron or accent mark):
-ēre. This is one of the few times I feel it’s important to emphasize the macrons, because the infinitive form is the form you need for classification of verbs, and the macron over the e is the only thing to distinguish 2nd from 3rd conjugation infinitives. Here are the 2nd conjugation verbs we’ve already used in previous lessons:
ferveo, fervēre, ferbui (intr.), 2 = boil
habeo, 2 = have
valeo, valēre, valui, valiturus, 2 = am strong, am well
video, vidēre, vidi, visus, 2 = see
The 2nd principal part (infinitive) of 2nd conjugation verbs ends in –ēre. There is a somewhat typical pattern of endings for 4 principal parts, like habeo, habēre, habui, habitus. (eo, ēre, ui, itus). But as you will see, not all verbs follow this pattern. The ones that do not have the forms written out, while the “typical” ones just have a 2 after them. The pattern for a present tense conjugation is as follows:
moneo = I warn
mones = you warn
monet = he/she/it warns
monemus = we warn
monetis = you (pl.) warn
monent = they warn
The E from the stem stays in all the forms of the present tense, including 1st person singular, where it is pronounced distinctly from the O (moneo is a 3-syllable word).
principal parts like moneo, monēre, monui, monitus unless otherwise noted)
doceo, docēre, docui, doctus, 2 = teach, inform
fleo, flēre, flevi, fletus, 2 = cry, weep
maneo, manēre, mansi, mansurus, 2 = remain, stay
moneo, 2 = warn, advise
moveo, movēre, movi, motus, 2 = move
sedeo, sedēre, sedi, sessus, 2 = sit
teneo, tenēre, tenui, tentus, 2 = hold, keep
terreo, 2 = frighten, terrify
timeo, timēre, timui, 2 = fear
circum, prep. w. acc. = around
quot, indecl. adj. = how many?
ubi, adv. = where?
Soror mea patellas habet. = My sister has the plates.
Aqua in olla fervet. = The water is boiling in the pot.
Marcus non valet. = Marcus is not well (strong).
Elephantus murem videt. = The elephant sees the mouse.
Quot mala habes? = How many apples do you have?
Quot libros tenet? = How many books is he/she holding?
Cibum movemus. = We move the food.
In oppido manetis. = You (all) remain in town.
Magistra puellas et pueros docet. = The teacher teaches the girls and boys.
Parva puella canem timet. = The small girl is afraid of the dog.
Milites fortes urbem tenent. = The brave soldiers are holding the city.
Ubi panem tenes? = Where do you keep the bread?
Canis parvam puellam terret. = The dog frightens the small girl.
Servus barbaros monet. = The slave warns the barbarians.
Discipuli in herbam sedent. = The students are sitting on the grass.
Luciam de periculo monemus. = We warn Lucia about the danger.
Feles et canis non movent. = The cat and the dog do not move.
Nepotes circum mensam sedent. = The grandchildren sit around the table.
Mater flet quod pueri mali sunt. = Mother weeps because the boys are bad.
Romani Klingones non timent. = Romans do not fear Klingons.
Verbum memoriā non teneo. = I do not remember the word. (lit. I do not hold the word in memory.)
Magistri multa nomina memoriā tenent. = The teachers remember many names.
Gaius stat, sed Paula sedet. = Gaius stands, but Paula sits.
Littera scripta manet. = The written word (letter) endures.
That’s enough for this week... next time we’ll look at 3rd conjugation verbs. Please feel free to ask questions or give comments below. I hope you are enjoying the course. Valete!
The idiom "memoria teneo" does not use the preposition as far as I have seen, and there are many other times when "in" may be omitted, but without a time machine I don't know whether ancient Romans would look at you funny if you did put it in. It's part of what makes constructing colloquial Latin sentences fun and challenging! On the plus side, there are no ancient Romans around to correct you.