"Ich hoffe, dass ich es tun kann."
Translation:I hope that I can do it.
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As a native German: There is no significant difference between "machen" und "tun". In quite a lot of cases they are interchangeable. The different usage may depends on which/what is "to be done" / "to be make". The distinction of use is as similar as you English people would distinguish between "making" > "machen" [the process of making or producing something] and "doing" > "tun" [the activities in which a particular person engages].
Dass is just one of those prepositional phrases that doesn't agree with the verb, so it pushes the verb to the end of the sentence.
Ordinarily, by itself, this phrase would be "Ich kann es tun", but with dass, kann gets pushed to the end, so it becomes "dass ich es tun kann".
This is just how it is with dass, the main verb will always get pushed to the end of the sentence.
I hope that makes sense, it is kind of a weird concept.
Exactly, many conjunctions like "dass" act this way: they are subordinating conjunctions. Here you can find a list: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/german/hmr/Grammatik/Konjunktionen/Konjunktionen.html
Not since 1996.
People who grew up before the spelling reform may still write like that, any may even get publishers to publish books in old spelling, but it is no longer taught at school and would be considered incorrect in an education or official context (e.g. a civil servant - who represents the country - writing to a citizen).
As a private person, u kan ov kors rite lyk u want, including using "old" spelling.
Neither of these is a fragment: each can stand on its own as a complete sentence...
That seems to be true in the default English translation, but that is because the conjunction "that" is omitted, as is possible in English but not in German.
If you include it, then you will see that "I hope." is a full sentence but "That I can do it." is not: it's a subordinate clause, and those have a different word order in German than main clauses do.