"A mother is a woman."
Translation:Мама — это женщина.
это can be omited but it's better this way I think. In the nominal sentences это helps to substitute verb "to be" - so "Это женщина" means "This/it is a woman" and in "Мама - это женщина" это is specified - who is this/it? => mother. I hope this helps and doesn't confuse you even more :)
I think the dash just points out that they are labeling a certain person, so:
"мама - это женщина" "Мама это женщина"
Both mean: "Mom/Mother is a woman"
but ofcourse, when you change it to a question:
"Мама, это женщина?" | "Mom, is this a woman?"
and if you leave out the questionmark you are correct, it would turn into:
мама, это женщина | "Mom, this is a woman"
I think the English question they give is pretty weird though "A mother is a woman?" and then the Russian translates into : "Mother is a woman".
I am no expert but I think the dash only comes by when you give a description of someone in a written style, like: you would only say: моя мать это доктор in a conversation and not моя мать - доктор while i think both mean the same thing and would be understood anyway.
In a lot of languages without the verb "to be," (ancient Chinese, ancient Egyptian, arguably Egyptian Arabic) pronouns are often used to emphasize that the sentence is equating two things. Some people also argue that these pronouns get re-analyzed as verbs, but that's more dubious.
Russian omits the verb to be in the present tense (but not in the past or future), so that's why you can see a dash. You can think of it as a substitute for is or are. For example, in the phrase 'Мама - хорошая женщина', the dash means 'is'.
Hope that cleared it up for you.
If you truly understand Russian phonology, the "е" says the previous consonnant "н" is soft : there is no "ye" vowel! Most Russian consonnants can be hard or soft. For instance, the letter "н" can be the phonem /н/ (hard N, with the tongue back in the mouth) or the phonem /н'/ (soft N, pronounced like in onion). On the other side, there is only one phonem /а/, but you have the 2 letters "а" and "я" to tell us if the prevous "н" is hard (/на/, NA) or soft (/н'а/, NiA). It's muche more "economical" to have 2 sets of vowel letters than 2 sets of consonant letters! You will have a much deeper understanding of Russian grammar if you think in terms of phonems. The best introduction I ever found explaining Russian phonology was in a little French book : Parlez russe en 40 leçons.
No, there is no pause at the dash and moreover there is no need in the dash in the first example ("Мама, это женщина" is also correct). The difference is in the intonation and the pause at the comma in the first example.
So, in the first case you pronounce "мама" in the most neutral and low tone, then pause at the comma, then some intonation stress with some tone rising at "это" or even "это же..." and then the ending of the phrase in low tone. Actually, what is sounds here is much more closer to "Мама, это - женщина" than "мама - это женщина".
In the second case the first syllable of "мама" is stressed and pronounced in higher tone than the second "ма" and almost no pause after that :)
I hope it helps at least a little bit :)
How do Russians type the dash? I've got my keyboard capable of swapping into a Russian keyboard layout, and I can't find a dash in it anywhere, only the hyphen. Don't tell me that Russians are constantly using an alt combination in every other sentence, that would be ridiculous. There must be some key for it here somewhere...
Well, it depends and it is similar to English dash usage in dialogs for example. As standard keyboard layouts don't have dash we use hyphen (-) or sometimes double hyphen (--) which in some social networks and text editors is replaced to dash automatically. There are also specific layouts that have many different quotes, different kind of dashes and many other typographic symbols. Some people like to be perfect in this area. But it can lead to problems in applications where Unicode is not supported or partly supported. So universal but not correct way is to use hyphen/double hyphen. Of course in printed matter usually correct dashes are used.
Bueno, se trata de como uno realmente puedes clasificar el genero. Podemos asumir que segun la clasica manera en que los padres fundadores del latin Vulgar clasificaban el genero, podemos a clasificar el genero en la mism manera. No tenemos que aplicar la miriada de generos a los afijos de los articulos por ejemplo. Lo siento si no estoy acentuando los vocales.
You are supposed to use a dash: 1) if you define one noun (subject) by another noun (predicate) and both nouns are in nominative case:
- Мама - женщина. (A mother is a woman)
2) If a predicate is connected to a subject by "это":
- Мама - это женщина. (A mother is a woman)
Of course, there are a lot of other rules concerning a dash, but these two cases are the most important by now :)
Because it should be there :)
The direct translation is "мама (or мать) есть женщина" but the present tense form of the verb "to be" ("есть") is almost never used nowadays. So. the actual translations are "мама/мать - женщина" or "мама/мать - это женщина". Both sentences mean the same thing :)
Okay, I think I get it. The inclusion of это in this sentence clarifies that you are talking about the topic of mothers (mothers in general), and not a particular individual. If you omit it, it could be understood as "Mother is a woman," or "My mother is a woman." Am I on the right track?
You only use этот with masculine singular nouns in the nominative case (and masculine inanimate nouns in the accusative). The word этот is a demonstrative article/adjective only. Thus: этот мальчик = this boy; этот дом = this house. The feminine equivalent is эта: эта женщина = this woman; эта лошадь = this horse. There is also a neuter equivalent, это: это такси = this taxi; это поле = this field. The plural form of these articles/adjectives is эти: эти дома = these houses; эти лошади = these horses; эти поля = these fields.
In contrast, the word это also does double duty as a demonstrative pronoun. Это дом = This is a house. Это лошадь = This is a horse. Это поле = This is a field. Это озёра = These are lakes. When used in this way, это is invariable, irrespective of the gender and number of the nouns being described.