Русский алфавит: А(звук ^) Б(звук b) В (звук v) Г (Звук g) Д (звук d) E (звук y) Ё (как быстрое yo) Ж (звук zh) З (звук z) И (ЗВУК i) Й (буква ,,и краткое" звук непередаваем : - )) К (звук ck) Л(звук l) М(звук m) Н(звук n, not h!) O - звук o П - звук р Р - звук r С - звук s Т - звук t У - звук u или y Ф - звук f Х - звук h Ц - непередаваемо Ч - ch Ш - sh Щ - shch Ъ - звука не обозначает,но стоит, например, в словах объявление, подъезд, чтобы сделать звук, твёрдым. Если ,,подъезд с ,,ъ", то читается ,,pod ezd", а если без него - ,,podezd" Ы - похоже на ,,и", но произносится с широкой улыбкой Ь - как ,,ъ", только смягчает Например: ель, пень, соль. Э - как е в слове hen Ю - йу Я - йа
Shashwat, I think a combination of both would be most helpful, plus grammar/declination.
I don't know what's your native tongue. Mine is German with near to zero knowledge of Russian language. Aside from the exceptions д э я н, I don't remember most letters well and sometimes I can't quite understand how each letter in a word is pronounced. But this app is better than nothing. :)
Yes, I agree with you that a combination of both methods should be used: but in this case all the letters except Э are the same as the English alphabet.
On a side note I had stopped learning Russian for about a year. Now that I have resumed, I do not use Duolingo since it does not give a sense of having done something. Instead I am using a textbook since it gives me a greater sense of accomplishment.
Are you sure about the similarity to English? Almost all letters look very different due to cyrillic instead of latin alphabet, are often pronounced differently and some are even likely to be mixed up (e.g. russian "p" being equivalent English "r", Russian "B" like English "v"). Maybe it's easier for you because you speak Hindi?
I also found some old Russian GDR-schoolbooks of my mom. I'll try to learn with them additionally. I think the hardest part is the fluid pronounciation at the end. When you listen to youtube tutorials by real Russians, pronounciation and intonation are often very different from the computer voices here (and more intimidatingly difficult). Anyway, good luck and progress to you!
PS: What textbooks do you use?
Well... "том" is also the prepositional case of "тот" (masculine) and "то" (neuter). It is almost impossible to mix them up, because the meaning is always clear from the context:
Это Том (This is Tom)
Том сидит на стуле (Tom is sitting on the chair)
Ты сидишь на том стуле (You are sitting on that chair)
Я думаю о том человеке (I think about that man)
Best advice I can personally give you is that 'Ш' sounds like the 'Sh' in 'Shoe'. Щ sounds like 'Sh' but with your teeth clenched. Comes from the glottal region I believe. Not a huge difference in my experience but that is the difference. As far as Ж goes, it's easy after a little bit. Жизни "Zheeyzniy" -- Щас "Schas." It's all about where it originates in your throat. I recommend using Yandex for the best machine translation possible. The enunciation is also spot on. Yandex is kind of the Google of Russia lol. Anyways I hope this helped!
Okay I'm not easily tricked but this one is just annoying for beginners lol. It needs to be clear that they want you to type Tom and not Here's That. or "There is that.[over there]" Also, repost: э = if you plan on moscow dialect, just remember this sound like "Ea" like in "Sea" or the beginning of "AIrplane." О is very often unstressed unless it's a short word like том i've found. Easy example, хорошо = haraSHO, not ho-ro-sho. :P
Э sounds plain E, as in "End". е is "ye". и is "i", as in "In". ы is the sound "ı" in Turkish. I cant think of any English examples of that sound but if you google translate "ı" in Turkish you can hear it --example words for the sound: kırmızı (red), ırak (Iraq or far; has 2 meanings).
Аа - a
Бб - b, lowercase cursive is sometimes δ
Вв - v, see greek beta which also became a v and is now called "vita"
Гг - g, lowercase cursive is a reversed s (starts left, ends right)
Дд - d, this oddity is written Dd or Dg in cursive, dont even ask me how this came to be (actually this is just a weirdly written delta Δ)
Ее - ye/'e (apostrophe means the previous consonant is soft)
Ёё - yo/'o (usually written Ее)
Жж - this sound doesnt appear in english, but its a sh-type sound, except with z, so zh.
Зз - z (before i as in greek zita)
Ии - i, written like u in cursive (the pointy thing at the end is also written in the capital, because its not a U, its a u), looks like a hastily written eta (also pronounced i in modern greek) because thats exactly what it is
Йй - y (corresponds to j in latin alphabet, written like и in cursive but with the breve)
Кк - k, see greek kappa
Лл - something in between l and w, more l-ish when soft, more w-ish when hard, sometimes written like ^ especially in cursive (or capital lambda Λ, its almost as if this part of cyrillic was just mistaken greek)
Мм - m (written м, not m in cursive)
Нн - n
Оо - o (a before accented syllable, o when accented, a-ish sound after accent)
Пп - p (see greek pi)
Рр - r (see greek rho)
Сс - s
Тт - t (written m in cursive for some reason, the difference is that м starts at the bottom and is more pointy and m sometimes gets a dash over it)
Уу - u (closest to english oo, see capital upsilon in greek)
Фф - f (greek phi)
Хх - h (but more throaty, greek chi)
now cyril ran out of greek letters so he had to get inventive
Цц - ts
Чч - ch
Шш - sh (slightly harder)
Щщ - shch (yes, this abomination is a letter)
ъ - this is a mute letter, makes previous consonand hard in spite of the following iotated vowel (е, ё, ю, я)
ы - this isnt exactly it, but think i in lived
ь - makes preceding consinant soft
note that these three dont have capitals, because they never appear at the beginning of a word and theyre special (they actually do for all-caps Ъ, Ы, Ь but in theory they don't)
Ээ - "e oborotnoye" reversed e, hard e
Юю - dont let the o shape fool ya, it's a yu/'u
Яя - ya/'a
I don't understand why это is prenounced as eta, when the guides to russian keyboards show that the это should be prenounced as eto.
э [eh] т [t] о [o]
As the letter а [a] exists, why is this not used?
Э is pronounced from [ɛ] to [e] (or [ɨ̞] / [ɪ] if it is unstressed), which is about the same as "e" in "set".
A word-initial stressed Е is similar to "ye" in "yes"(same after a vowel). After a consonant, it is similar to [e] in "late"[leɪt], and the preceding consonant gets palatalised. Е is [ɪ] when unstressed.
Е is pronounced the same as э after ш, ж, ц (e.g., шесть, цена) and in numerous loanwords (менеджер, кафе,тест).
There is a button in the upper left hand corner when doing a lesson. It shows Aa when set to the Latin alphabet and Яя when set to use the Cyrillic alphabet. In order to type in Russian yourself, you'll need to install a Russian keyboard which you can do in the settings for your computer.
You may have to get used to the way t/d are different in Russian. In some languages, for instance, in English T, P, K are aspirated at the beginning of the word.
In Russian, they are not. Voicing is the only difference. On the other hand, Д is voiced rather strongly. I hope telling which is which will become easier in a few days.
This was an unusual question because I was just shown a picture of women and learned the word "mama," and shown a picture of a home/house, and learned the word "dom."
Then I'm asked what "Eto Tom" is.
So, it looked like a trick question to get me to incorrectly choose "Dom" for "It's a home"--but I guessed (correctly) that the question was not related to the two things I'd just learned.
I mean, why would I be asked questions about what I just learned?
But, since "tom" in the Russian language means "there," I typed my answer as "It's there."
And of course, I was wrong because we were magically now asking about a person's name.
THAT is very bad instruction and testing.
Том (Tom) ≠ там (there). They use similar words to teach us the fine differences in written and spoken word. So you've actually been asked about what you've just learned, just a little more subtle while introducing a new word that sounds very similar. Yes, it's a lot of guessing by exclusion. This is how you learn new words on Duolingo. I honestly think duolingo will not be enough to really learn Russian besides a few words and phrases. But it's still better than to waste the time elsewhere on the internet. ;)
I am not sure, but I believe there's no control over what order the sentences come in in any given lesson. For one person это Том? might come first and for another это Том.
In my experience the hints are hit and miss, possibly more so with Russian where there's so much declension and meanings can change dramatically. Occasionally it's frustrating, but I tend to assume it comes with the territory.
Not all of the hints are 100% accurate, but since Duolingo is supposed to be learning by doing/learning from mistakes, I don't see it as that big an issue. In this case, there are other clues (question mark or lack thereof), and the hint is there, even if it's in a less than optimal position.
I know when I started doing German here, I had no idea tips and notes were even available, so I pretty much had to just jump in and hope for the best. I don't know, I just don't think it's that huge a deal, but maybe that's just me.