How do I know when to pronounce "o" as "a" ? Or, why do we write "УТРО" but not "УТРА" ?
o is only pronounced like 'oh' when it is stressed. All other times it is pronounced like 'ah' or 'uh' depending on where the o is in the word. Usually if the o is right after or before the stressed syllable it is pronounced like 'ah'. If it is farther away it is pronounced like 'uh'. Take хорошо for example. The last 'o' is stressed, so it's pronounced like 'huh-rah-SHOH'. Someone correct me if I'm wrong, I'm just going off of what I remember from school :)
Actually, it's not that difficult.
- "A" is always pronounced the same way as "uh" like in come
- "O" unstressed is pronounced like "A"
- "O" stressed is pronounced as "oh" like in ball
This is helpful, from a beginner's learning perspective: how is one to know when asked to write what we hear in Russian, if the "ah/uh" we hear spoken is "а" or "о" or some other vowel?
Well, I was learning German here in Duolingo, and it never forgave me wrong declination. To be honest Russian declination is twice as hard as the German one, but it still is the same thing and you can hardly learn it by only passing lessons in Duolingo. It's the background that has to be learnt somewhere else. Sometimes there are grammatical entry in Duolingo before the lesson but not always. Personally I would advise you to use external resources to find grammatical rules. For example see declinations here.
I would say it's all just memorizing how the words are spelled in the beginning. After you get a better feel for the sounds you'll start to recognize patterns/kind of tell the difference.
I'm sorry to disappoint you, but you have to look at the context. I'm native russian and I assure you, that there is no "oh", "ah" and "uh" difference here. Both russian "а" and "o" letters when they are not stressed are ALWAYS pronounced this way .
I am Russian and the way to actually do is to First learn the alphabet that would really help with it!
because утро is a neuter noun, so the adjective for 'good' has to match it with neuter ending -oe instead of masculine -ый ending. Hope this helps :)
Ooo...so much confusion...the only solution is to remember words,phrases,sentences as much as you can depending upon time place and circumstances. Its not like learning english of some other indian language.
What confusion do you talk about? "Доброе утро" is a direct translation of "Good morning". The only possible confusion is that this phrase is very old and idiomatic. In non-idiomatic speach word "добрый" today is used in the meaning "good" very rarely and mostly in sarcastic way. The primary meaning of "добрый" is "kind/not evil".
"Добрый" is masculin, "Доброе" is neuter gender. Since утро is neuter, you should use the second variant here.
How do you type in the Russian keyboard with an English keyboard, cause I've been having to use google translate to type in some stuff.