Omg, thanks so much. This is extremely helpful, yes. :D There's just one thing I have a question about, but I asked that in the thread for your explanation to which you just linked me, so I won't repeat it here. I already gave a lingot to that link, but this is so helpful that I'll give you five more here. ^^
Is there any difference in meaning between the words "мужчина" and "человек"?
EDIT: Had a Ukrainian friend explain to me that the former means "man" as in "a male human" and the latter means "man" as in "mankind."
I was confused, because I've always seen the first line of Dostoyevsky's "Notes from Underground" (Я человек больной… Я злой человек.) translated as "I am a sick man ... I am a spiteful man."
A more accurate translation of this would be "I am a sick human... I am a spiteful human." Your friend was right; Мужчина means "man" as in a male. Человек is more vague, meaning person or human, without mentioning gender.
While it does say "I am a sick man", it doesn't literally mean a man (male). It means human or even better, person.
"I am a sick person... I am a spiteful person."