Come on! What's the benefit to include every possible existing variants, when it costs a lot of time to add them, and it's not the purpose of this course, I prefer they spend their time wisely to add Russian variants to allow me to learn them! They work for free, their time is not infinite or extensible. Just stick to the standard "mum" and "mom", what's the problem?
You're right. "Есть" meaning "to be" is generally used to establish the existence of something, and it's not really a true verb, because it doesn't have a conjugation (any longer). You can say something like "Там есть велосипед" to establish the fact that there's a bicycle somewhere.
In casual spoken Russian there is simply not a verb "to be" in the present tense. For the past and future tenses, as well as when you need the infinitive, you use быть. (E.g., может быть = maybe (or may be: Это может быть Том. = It may be Tom.))
Есть = "to eat" is not the same verb, but it's a real verb, since you can conjugate it into the different forms ("I eat," "you eat," "he eats," etc.).
A little remark: to be translates as быть am, are, is - as есть (very rare archaic form of "are" is суть) she/he will - она/он будет they will - они будут I will - я буду I(male)/he was - я/он был I(female)/she was - я была They/you were - они/Вы были Thou (this form remane in russian) wast - ты был (male) / ты была (female). These all are forms of the verb "to be" in russian.
To answer everyone. Let's consider a situation: Dad is next to a boy and mom is at the opposite side of the room.
The boy: "Dad is here and mom is (over) there", "Папа здесь, а мама там".
"Here is mom" - "Вот мама". "Mom is here" - "Мама здесь" or "Мама тут".
"There is Mom" translates differently, depending on context:
"Look, there is mom over there!" - "Смотри, вон там мама!". "There is mom in the room" - "В комнате есть мама".
"Mom is in the room" - "Мама в комнате".
I don't think it's that simple, because the level only relates to how often a person has studied, not how thoroughly or how far.
One could theoretically get to level 25 just by doing the introductory lesson again and again and again, in which case one would definitely not be functionally fluent.
It also doesn't take into account study outside of Duolingo; someone who has got to level 25 but has never spoken to a Russian person/used their Russian outside Duolingo is unlikely to be able to use the language in a way most would consider fluent.
On the other hand, someone who was already fluent in Russian could probably test out of large sections of the tree and complete it with a relatively low level, which would be a poor indication of their fluency.
I am wonderng this for a while... Where is the " — " gone? When I first did this lesson it was there. In another comment I read that it is not a help for learners as someone guessed. It is the way it is written in Russian. Why has someone removed it? How am I supposed to learn it when it is not there? Does it show up later in the course?
The "is" is not in the phrase. Please, click in "Tips 7 notes", it's at the left-top part of the page. I didn't understood it too, but someone said it so I clicked and have some precious tips :) Those tips are also available, sometimes, >before< start the unit, what is very helpful.
In Russian we don't use "to be" verb normally (no one say "Мама есть там"), because of context we can get that mom is located there, but you can use it if you wanna say that mom has smth ("У мамы есть " - "Mom has ") or if, for example, animals are in some country but we may not to know about it ("В России есть медведи" - "There are bears in Russia")
While I've now at least managed to 'learn' the Cyrillic alphabet, I'm lost as to how to proceed from here on. Do I learn the 'words' separately in English before tryna 'spell' them out in russian, or do I directly try to wire my brain to 'learn russian'? To Cyrllic or not to Cyrllic? If anyone out there can shed some light, I'll be indebted as currently, I believe I can identify with an alien that's crash-landed on a foreign land and the only way to make sense of anything lies in this app. (For the sake of which, I assume English in the app = native alien language) I don't intend to spam, but I'm gonna keep posting this comment in these threads till some saint fixes my (malfunctioning) translator or at least tells me how on [insert native planet] I can 'learn' Russian without resorting to violence or flat-out rote-learning. (Could never grasp that particular skill either in school) That is all. I'll be waiting in my smoking, broken space craft, possibly stringing together Cyrllic syllables and consonants to form (most definitely) pure nonsense. At least there's no Russian-speaker nearby to offend. Joy.
So I was wondering about там; some languages distinguish between
"this" - an object by the speaker
"that" - an object by the listener
"that [over there]" - an object by neither the speaker nor the listener
Is там both of the last two cases, or only one of them (and, if so, which one?)