You can use «мне», however, you can omit the first person pronoun here, too. Especially if asking for an item at the store. Of course, it is a different story if the item is supposed to be given to someone other that you :).
Alternatively, you may omit "дайте" in colloquial speech or say "можно" (possible) instead:
- Мне курицу, пожалуйста.
- Мне кофе, 2 чая и чизкейк.
- Можно 2 латте?
- Можно мне курицу и рис?
That is not to say that we accept such structures as a tranlsation of "gve me" (which, in English, is not a good way to place an order anyway). Personally, I do not use «можно» much in these situations but I use "мне"-phrasing rather often.
Why is the translation "a plate" instead of "the plate"? I know Russian doesn't use articles, but for the purpose of translation in English wouldn't a direct object/accusative take the definite article "the"?
Direct objects in English can take either "a" or "the." Case does not determine definiteness, context does. I don't know much Russian yet but since we don't have context here, I would guess your answer would be another correct option. Report! :)
Would "Please pass a plate" work for a translation that doesn't use "me"?
isn't тарелка an inanimate noun and therefore should have the accusative case identical to the nominative?
Тарелка is the Nominative form. When an object is a direct object of a verb (memorise it on per-verb basis, actually) it takes a different form. Long story short, nouns ending in а/я (e.g., мама, кошка, тарелка, Россия, змея, семья) have a unique form for that purpose in the singular:
- Я знаю маму
- Я знаю эту кошку.
- Я знаю Россию.
Words like стол (masc.) or яблоко (neut.) re-use the dictionary form if they are inanimate—or re-use the Genitive if they are animate. In plural, this extends to all nouns whatsoever.
May I ask what you mean by "memorise it on a per-verb basis" please Shady.
Many verbs may be contextually transitive or intransitive:
I eat now. [ Intransitive ]
I eat figs. [Transitive ]
‧ Transitivity ‧ Linguistic grammar transitivity is a verb property as to whether a verb takes Direct Objects ‧ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transitivity_(grammar) ‧
Ditransitive Verb ‧ (of a verb) taking two objects, such as give in “Give me the ball” (where me is an indirect object and the ball is a direct object). Compare intransitive verb and transitive verb. ‧ en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Glossary#ditransitive ‧
‧ ditransitive verb ‧ дистративный глагол
[ ( Give ) may also be used without a Direct Object as an intransitive verb, ( I give in / up. The bridge gave way. She gave birth. ) ]
‧ Accusative Case - Direct Object ‧ Whenever a verb, like "read", "cut" or "want" acts directly on some noun, the latter is a Direct Object. Such Nouns take the Accusative case. ‧ ‧ www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Accusative-Case%3A-the-direct-object/tips-and-notes ‧
I tried "Pass the plate, please" (which was some nice alliteration), but it didn't like it. I know in the strictest definition, "pass" and "give" aren't quite the same - but in any reasonable context, "pass the plate" and "give me the plate" are functionally identical, and - at least in the UK - I would argue that "pass" is a lot more common, and sounds less rude and imperative.
Truth be told, using imperatives in English in general sounds less polite than something with "would" or "could". In Russian, "please" + imperative is the expected form.
Your sentence is actually a question. It needs to be an imperative sentence.
Is "Give me your plate" implied here? I sort of felt that, but I may well be wrong...