"She has a friend."
Translation:Sie hat einen Freund.
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Ein Freund is masculine, so it takes a special ending in the accusative (whenever something is acting on it) and becomes einen Freund. This doesn't happen with feminine or neuter nouns.
Sie hat einen Freund.
Sie acts on ein Freund, changing it to einen Freund.
Sie hat eine Freundin.
Sie acts on eine Freundin, but nothing changes because it's feminine. It's still in the accusative case, it just doesn't have a distinct form.
Right now, you just have to worry about the nominative and accusative cases, or the top half of the chart.