According to my garment-knowledgeable wife, yes, the UK uses the word "jumper" to mean the same kind of garment that Americans call a "sweater". Americans, though, also use "jumper", but over the pond it means an over-garment, generally middle or heavier weight (often corduroy or wool), sleeveless although broad over the shoulder (not just a strap), with a plunging neckline, to be worn over a shirt or blouse. It also descends to an indeterminate length, anywhere down to the hips (like a shirt) or further, to the leg, even down to the ankle (like a dress). In the US, a jumper would generally be considered feminine attire, whereas sweaters could be either sex (or uni-sex).
I'm not sure just what the implications are for how this all relates to the Russian word, but even if the Russian-style garment is more like what Americans call "sweaters", it still makes sense to me to allow "jumper" for the sake of international usage. After all, I don't intend to dress my cars in "bonnets" and "boots" either, but will stick by "hoods" and "trunks". Fair is fair for everybody.
" I don't intend to dress my cars in 'bonnets' and 'boots' either, but will stick by 'hood' and trunks' ."
Actually our first car after we married was a Hillman Minx, a British brand. And we Yanks amused ourselves by referring to "the windscreen" and "boot" and "bonnet" and "spanners" and so on, pretending that was what this British car would understand. Doesn't take much to amuse the young and foolish (and impecunious).
It is the same meaning, yes, but it is not the same sentence construction. I think the exercise is reasonable in demanding "my sweater", as there is no reason to avoid this clear and literal translation. It's one thing to translate an exercise that tests your understanding of how a sentence is built as well as its meaning, and quite another to translate a sentence where the priority is to convey its meaning, and where other priorities such as flow, mood, and style might have some importance too.
So, you weren't wrong as to meaning. You were just being freer in translation, as you might be able to somewhere else, but we are less free here, as we must focus on demonstrating mastery of the fundamentals before all else.
Omg russian language is so hard and become more harder because i'm learning Russian with no- native language ( English) because there are not Russian and Portuguese on Duolingo, has just russian and English however i'm intermediate level in English yet :( OMG it's no easy at all but i won't give up
When I was learning, I would pretend that I was gargling mouth wash (but without the mouth wash, of course!). Eventually, I was able to roll my R's when speaking! It took my about 6 months, while living in Belgium and speaking French, for my mouth to learn. Also, pretending that you're a dog growling at something helps. I know it sounds really silly, but these were the best methods for me!
Dynamite tip - thanks, Jstich! I've spent hours trying to roll r's for Spanish, and now Russian, getting absolutely nowhere comfortable. Here I find I've been trying to roll them with the wrong part of the tongue! It's not the front (the tip?) but further back towards the soft palate. If you don't voice it, it sounds rather like a cat purring. Now I'm purring too, no sweat. Three lingots for a real winner!
No you were originally correct. Spanish and Russian trills are with the tip of the tongue. French trills are with the back of the tongue. Spanish and Russian "short" trills are made exactly the same way English makes the consonant sound in the middle of "butter" or "ladder" in fast speech. Just a very quick tap of the tongue on the top of the mouth. The double "r" in Spanish is the only place you have to worry about a full-on tongue roll (I'm not sure about Russian yet because I haven't learned it, but from research and listening--I'm trained in phonetics--this is definitely a front of the tongue trill).
The devil you say! It's back to square one for me then. I have a good ear, but no phonetics training, and the one thing I'm sure of is that my problem at the tip is that I'm trying to force the tongue to trill, thereby introducing a tension that stifles its free movement. Relaxation doesn't seem to help in that the tongue then simply goes on in the untrilling motion I've always known, and attempts to alter something like that without forcing just cause the tongue to slide forward. If I'm voicing it, it sounds like what I'd get in an open-mouthed "blah". I can sometimes get something that seems close when the r follows most hard consonants, but after a vowel or a g it's a no-go.
One thing that's occurred to me: I've always tried to make the trill not just with the tip of the tongue but also at the front of the palate. Does it matter where on the palate the tongue strikes? I'm wondering if that's how I've been (literally) tongue-tying myself.
Gargling I can do. But without a good "tip" I think I'd just have to resort to "gargoyling": silent tongue protrusion at the whole frustrating mess. Your help at preventing such a fate is greatly appreciated! Thanks. :)
Gargling will work great for French and German! I'd say to start with the "quick roll" I described above, which is the sound for the single /r/ in Spanish and I'm guessing for most of the/r/ sounds in Russian (can let you know as I progress if I find otherwise, or someone else can chime in here). it's just a faster, lighter /d/ sound, in phonetics called a tap or flap. Tongue placement is slightly behind where you'd have it for a regular English /d/ or /t/. If you're an American English speaker, say (in regular fast speech, not slow enunciated speech) butter, letter, ladder, Katie, and then Spanish cara, pero, claro with the same middle consonant to get started. Play with that placement and just a quick tongue flip for a bit and then come back to the trill. I'll try to think of tips for the full trill but for now all I can think of, besides what you already mentioned, is that it does take more breath than one might think.
Also, you can use other parts of your mouth to learn about the motion. As well as gargling for the "back-R", experiment with "brrrrrr", vibrating your lips together. Notice what has to tense and what has to relax to make this sound. Then stick your tongue out and blow a raspberry. Now your upper lip is vibrating against your tongue. Again, notice what has to be tense and what has to be relaxed. In all three of these trills, two surfaces are vibrating (tongue and soft palate, lip and lip, lip and tongue). With the "front-R" trill, only one surface is vibrating (your tongue, just behind the tip), whilst the other surface is hard and inflexible (the corner of the shelf of gum just behind your top teeth - the "alveolar ridge"). That means the balance of tension and relaxation is different: the middle of the tongue will be tense, holding the tongue body angled upwards towards the alveolar ridge, and the edges of the tongue will be high and tense against the upper side teeth, preventing the air from going around the sides the tongue, while the end will be making relaxed contact with the alveolar ridge so that the air pressure makes it come away and the subsequent release of pressure allows it to return - many times a second.
I just tried the 'pretend to gargle mouthwash' method and my dog went berserk... it works! Thanks!
Amy, I'm very much a beginner at Russian myself, but I would heartily agree with Corona: learn Cyrillic. Transliteration (that's what you mean by "phonetic", right?) is always a crutch. Its real use lies within text of another language (in its alphabet), so that readers can sound things out to some degree, but it's not a good learning tool. To use Russian, one must eventually read the Cyrillic letters, write them, understand the original spellings. Even to speak it, one must learn the sounds (that's phonetics), and to get a handle on those one needs the Cyrillic letters for phonetic support, because those spellings (and not those of a transliteration) are the ones that are designed to indicate and support the Russian sounds. As an actual learner of the language, you are trying to learn to walk. A crutch may help one who can't walk otherwise, but it would hinder development of what is needed to walk under one's own power.
I know well how it's a bit intimidating to begin with. I'm at level 7 but have completed only 4 Russian skills. (That's partly because I don't get daily Russian practice - other priorities.) But it's also because I need much repetition. And that's because there are many basic things to learn in the initial skills: vocabulary, usage, some new twists at saying things that are very unlike English, basic conjugations, also noun and pronoun declensions (which English doesn't have), and I haven't even mentioned the alphabet yet. So it's many things all at once. Be patient. Doing 4 skills is a mass of new information in Russian, and it takes a lot of times through it to really master even the beginnings of all these things. I'm certain that as we go on, some of the lessons will come more easily, because this same information density cannot continue forever.
Ok, this is great to hear. I'm taking forever (a week) and still on the first alphabet lessons. I finally just got all my spellings correct on the first few exercises, so your comment helps immensely. The comparison to walking w/ a crutch v learning to walk is so apt. I'm falling a lot, but eventually I hope to walk. Both of your answers have made me feel so much better. Thanks again.
You're welcome! It is all very new to me, too, but the more I look at it and practice, the more it sinks in. I definitely have not been able to take this as fast as I did French, and it felt disheartening at first, but I've lowered my expectations for myself and am just trying to enjoy each lesson as it comes and repeat as much as I need.
Well, I'm scarcely an expert, but in my experience "не" means "not" and "нет" means "no". While both are types of negation, they are not interchangeable, at least not in English. And as far as I know, not in Russian either. And in my experience, I have never seen "нет" used where English would use "not".
Memrise teaches you vocabulary. Duo gives you translation exercises for vocabulary that you acquire along the way. In the process you learn word order, alternative translations and grammar.
Memrise and Duo do different things. Neither one of them teach you how to speak a foreign language, how to understand a foreign language in context when you hear it or even reasonable level of skill at reading your target language in context. There is nothing wrong with that. That is just not something that they do.
Not to mention that there may come a time when you really, really wish you knew how ask if there is a medic present , in the local language. Its like having a fire extinguisher in your car. You hope you never have to use it but it is unquestionably a good thing to have.
Knowing how to talk about a first aid kit in your target language is a good thing. That is because they are required by law to be in your car in many European countries .
Хотелось бы понять чем this отличается от it(смешно, но этот вопрос я задаю после 88 уровней). Итак, this переводится как этот, а it как это. И получаем два разных перевода с нюансами. Этот свитер мой и это мой свитер. В чем спрашивается разница? В первом случае перебираем много свитеров и выбираем один, акцент на уникальности ну и на праве обладания тоже. Во втором случае идёт речь об уникальности не идёт, только о праве обладания.
Тут проще объяснить на одушевлённых.
"This is my sister" - "Это моя сестра"
"She is my sister" - "Она моя сестра"
Т.е. разница не принципиальная, но есть, как в русском, так и в английском. В случае со свитером мы вместо местоимения "she" используем "it". Просто по-русски мы не говорим "он мой свитер" (а если говорим, то редко), поэтому получается, что переводим оба варианта как "это мой свитер". Но в английском по-прежнему разница та же, что и между "this is" и "she is".
For the benefit of those mystified by what he is talking about.... I assume that he is using the word bank option where Duo provides you with all the words in the sentence plus some extra incorrect ones. The student's goal is to choose the correct ones and then place them in the correct order.
Duo capitalizes the correct word that goes at the beginning of the sentence. The result is that the student is able to deduce the first word of the sentence without any effort. In a short sentence where word order is important, that is a big help.