против состав остров лев таков взрыв каков мотив рукав вызов
бровь ветвь вкривь вновь вплавь любовь морковь новь обувь
I clearly hear the difference! Thanks for posting those (much needed) examples.
I think of ь as adding a simultaneous 'y' or 'ee' asking to the consonant.
So в sounds like 'vuh' and вь sounds more like 'vee'. That isn't quite right, because they aren't two separate sounds, but i think it's close. Another comment linked to a comparison between кров (shelter) and кровь (blood); try listening for the little ghost of an 'ee' sound at the end of кровь and hopefully you'll hear it.
It palatalizes the preceding consonant. You can learn more about it here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palatalization_(phonetics) Basically speaking, you have to move your tongue closer to the hard palate when pronouncing a palatalized consonant.
No, but word-final consonants are devoiced. So at the end of a word в sounds like ф, г sounds like к, д like т, etc.
It's because both are slavic languages, they share a lot of words, especially Polish and Russian
Моя кровь красная — My blood is red
Я люблю музыку, мой сын тоже любит музыку. Моя кровь! — I like music, my son likes music too. My blood! (pronounced with pride)