"Моё место дома."
Translation:My place is at home.
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The proposed sentence isn't the best way to translate it, I just tried to find a good example where this phrase could be used. On the other hand, there's a really good Russian proverb with a meaning close to the English one: "В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше" (~"It's good to be the guest at someone else's house, but it's much better to be at home").
No. As a rule of thumb, Prepositional case can't be used without a preposition (makes sense, doesn't it? :) ). Дома is some abnormal noun form and I can't recall any other noun tranformed this way to mean "at smth". So just remember it without trying to explain. ;) Btw, Prep. case of дом is доме and Locative is дому, but this particular word has its own peculiarities, look'em up here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locative_case#Russian
Well, it's a bit easier, but still tricky: for some masculine words and feminine words ending with ь in the singular you have to use a special case called Locative. It is always preceded by в or на (while Prepositional has some some other prepositions like о and при). For masculine words it takes the ending -у and for feminine ones it is -и. Also the ending has to be stressed. You can read more about it in the skills Around you and Instr.Case. :)
"Я дома" (I'm home) is right, saying "Я в доме" (-е because it's the prepositional case) means I'm "in a house", without specifying which house that is.
"Я в дом" could mean 'I'm going to a/the house" ("Я иду в дом", omitting иду), but it should be implicit in the context which house that is. "Я иду домой" means "I'm going home".