"As you know, my brother cannot read."
Translation:Как вы знаете, мой брат не умеет читать.
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"Как знаете"/"как знаешь" is an idiomatic expression. It means something like "It's up to you" or "you know better, I guess" with a strong "whatever" tint to it. Like, when you tried to talk them out of something, but now are giving up.
That's why it's a bit jarring when it's used as a straightforward "as you know" and it's better not to omit the pronoun in this case.
Russian is only partially pro drop language. Unlike English it allows for dropping pronouns, but unlike languages like Italian or Spanish it doesn't like to do so most of the time.
Without pronouns sentences often sound curt, awkward and sometimes can even come off as rude, like an order. However, Russian also dislikes repeating words. So if a pronoun has been used once, it can be omitted in the next sentence or several. There are no definitive rules for that, though; it's mostly intuitive.
"Умеет" has more of a sense of "he knows how to", whereas "может" is more "he is able to". If the doesn't know how to read, he doesn't recognize words and letters. Maybe you've taken away his book or he should be doing his math homework, then he isn't able/allowed to read.
Nope. Знаю is conjugated to the first person singular 'I' or 'я'. 'Ты' requires 'знаешь.'
'Знать' conjugation: https://cooljugator.com/ru/%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8C
First, don't forget to conjugate verbs. "умеет" is the third person singular form ("he/she/it can"). The first person singular ("I can") would be "умею". The infinitive form is "уметь".
Second, "уметь" doesn't have a direct counterpart in English, but it's usually is translated as "can". In reality it means "can" as "to have the skill", as opposed to "to have the ability", which is "мочь".
If you meant "because I can" as a response to "why are you doing this?", in most cases it makes more sense to translate it as "потому что я могу".
"Потому что я умею" can also be a translation, but it heavily depends on the context.